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how experience changes the brain


how these changes are stored and subsequently reactivated


any pathological loss of memory

What are conditioning types of learning and memory?

classical, operant

What are spatial types of learning and memory?

working, reference

What is declarative memory?

Declarative memory is explicit.

What is procedural memory?

Procedural memory is implicit.

What are declarative types of learning and memory?

semantic, episodic

What is classical conditioning?

a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response

What does operant condition deal with?

rewards and punishments

What is an engram?

a unit of memory

What did Lashley conclude?

Memory is not localized anywhere in the brain, but it is widely distributed throughout the cortex.

What did H.M suffer from pre-surgery?


What did H.M suffer from post surgery?

He suffered from mild retrograde amnesia, and severe anterograde amnesia.

What is global amnesia?

Amnesia for information presented to all sensory modalities

What are the five tests that H.M underwent?

Digit Span + 1 Test
Block Tapping Memory Span Test
Mirror-Drawing Test
Rotary Pursuit Test
Incomplete Pictures Test

R.B amnesia was caused by?

cerebral ischemia

Post-mortem observation of R.B showed that he had damaged to what?

CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus

Korsakoff syndrome is associated with..


Alcoholism causes..

thiamine deficiency

Initially people with Korsakoff syndrome suffer from..

initial anterograde amnesia for explicit episodic memories

As the disease progresses people with Korsakoff syndrome suffer from..

severe retrograde amnesia

Alzheimer's disease starts with...

initial mild memory loss

Inital mild memory loss progesses into..


What are four symptoms of Alzheimers?

confusion, irritability, anxiety and speech problems

Alzheimers disease patients suffer from severe...

anterograde and retrograde amnesia

What degenerates in Alzheimer's disease

basal forebrain

Degradation of the basal forebrain results in...

loss of acetylcholine

Acetylcoline is mostly found in which part of the brain..

basal forebrain

Amyloid buildup and neuron loss result in...

characteristic tangles and plaques


temporary disturbance of consciousness

A concussion can result in a

posttraumatic amnesia


a pathological state of unconsciousnessd

Duration of a coma is

a short time after a severe blow to the head, it usually lasts a few seconds or minutes, but in severe cases it can last weeks

Hippocampus: Neuroanatomical Basis of Memory Storage

place cells, spatial memory

Rhinal Cortex: Neuroanatomical Basis of Memory Storage

object identification


Response learning and habit formation


Memory for experiences with emotional significance

Prefrontal Cortex

Episodic memory components are lost when prefrontal cortex is damaged
- Deficits in memory for temporal order of events
-Deficits in working memory
Thus: difficulty performing tasks that involve a series of responses

What grade does coma have?

A coma can have both retrograde and anterograde amnesia

What do rats use to complete the radial arm maze and morris water maze?

spatial cues from the room as reference

Gradients of retrograde amnesia after concussion seem to provide evidence for...

memory consolidation

Eye blink is linked to what structure of the brain


Hebb's idea of neural basis of learning and memory

Changes in the efficiency of synaptic transmission may be the basis of long-term memory

Two things that we need to know about LTP

1. a method at the cellular level to try and understand how memory takes place.
2. it takes place in the hippocampus

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