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45 terms

Learning and Memory

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learning
how experience changes the brain
memory
how these changes are stored and subsequently reactivated
amnesia
any pathological loss of memory
What are conditioning types of learning and memory?
classical, operant
What are spatial types of learning and memory?
working, reference
What is declarative memory?
Declarative memory is explicit.
What is procedural memory?
Procedural memory is implicit.
What are declarative types of learning and memory?
semantic, episodic
What is classical conditioning?
a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
What does operant condition deal with?
rewards and punishments
What is an engram?
a unit of memory
What did Lashley conclude?
Memory is not localized anywhere in the brain, but it is widely distributed throughout the cortex.
What did H.M suffer from pre-surgery?
seizures
What did H.M suffer from post surgery?
He suffered from mild retrograde amnesia, and severe anterograde amnesia.
What is global amnesia?
Amnesia for information presented to all sensory modalities
What are the five tests that H.M underwent?
Digit Span + 1 Test
Block Tapping Memory Span Test
Mirror-Drawing Test
Rotary Pursuit Test
Incomplete Pictures Test
R.B amnesia was caused by?
cerebral ischemia
Post-mortem observation of R.B showed that he had damaged to what?
CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus
Korsakoff syndrome is associated with..
alcoholism
Alcoholism causes..
thiamine deficiency
Initially people with Korsakoff syndrome suffer from..
initial anterograde amnesia for explicit episodic memories
As the disease progresses people with Korsakoff syndrome suffer from..
severe retrograde amnesia
Alzheimer's disease starts with...
initial mild memory loss
Inital mild memory loss progesses into..
dementia
What are four symptoms of Alzheimers?
confusion, irritability, anxiety and speech problems
Alzheimers disease patients suffer from severe...
anterograde and retrograde amnesia
What degenerates in Alzheimer's disease
basal forebrain
Degradation of the basal forebrain results in...
loss of acetylcholine
Acetylcoline is mostly found in which part of the brain..
basal forebrain
Amyloid buildup and neuron loss result in...
characteristic tangles and plaques
concussion
temporary disturbance of consciousness
A concussion can result in a
posttraumatic amnesia
Coma
a pathological state of unconsciousnessd
Duration of a coma is
a short time after a severe blow to the head, it usually lasts a few seconds or minutes, but in severe cases it can last weeks
Hippocampus: Neuroanatomical Basis of Memory Storage
place cells, spatial memory
Rhinal Cortex: Neuroanatomical Basis of Memory Storage
object identification
Striatum
Response learning and habit formation
Amygdala
Memory for experiences with emotional significance
Prefrontal Cortex
Episodic memory components are lost when prefrontal cortex is damaged
- Deficits in memory for temporal order of events
-Deficits in working memory
Thus: difficulty performing tasks that involve a series of responses
What grade does coma have?
A coma can have both retrograde and anterograde amnesia
What do rats use to complete the radial arm maze and morris water maze?
spatial cues from the room as reference
Gradients of retrograde amnesia after concussion seem to provide evidence for...
memory consolidation
Eye blink is linked to what structure of the brain
cerebellum
Hebb's idea of neural basis of learning and memory
Changes in the efficiency of synaptic transmission may be the basis of long-term memory
Two things that we need to know about LTP
1. a method at the cellular level to try and understand how memory takes place.
2. it takes place in the hippocampus