Terms in this set (57)

"Us and Them"
-a guy/neighbor of the narrator does not believe in TV
narrator analyzes this: to say you don't believe in it is different than to say you don't care for it
--> implies that TV has a master plan that you're against
--> dad of narrator says "good for him" and so does the mom, and they continue to watch the news
-narrator starts to spy on this neighbor (Mr. Tomkey and his family)
-he discovers:
--> they have to talk during dinner
--> they don't know what's "normal" → when/what time it's normal to have dinner, what dinner should look like
-narrator feels bad that the kids are so innocently ignorant
-Halloween: the Tomkeys leave gumdrops with a sign "Don't be Greedy"
--> sister: "Who do they think they are?"
--> Tomkeys trick or treat the day after Halloween because they were out of town (daughter wanted to wear the costume)
--> narrator attributes this to not having a TV
-->asking for candy after Halloween turned to begging, and that made people uncomfortable
--> When the Tomkeys come to his house asking for candy, the narrator tries to eat it all, but eventually the mom just comes and takes some
--> sisters were in more trouble because they didn't give their candy at all
-narrator went from feeling pity into feeling hard and ugly towards the Tomkeys
-wondering about them was his "gift" to them, now he would find pleasure in hating them
-only other option was to take a look at himself:
--> an image of a human stuffing himself so that others may be denied
-->TV had a lot of images like this
-an early work of US artist Robert Rauschenberg: an almost blank piece of paper in a simple gilded frame
-The work was created in 1953 by Rauschenberg erasing a drawing he obtained from American artist Willem de Kooning
-It is considered a Neo-Dadaist conceptual artwork, with similarities affinities to Added Art, although with material removed from the original work rather than added

The work is a development from Rauschenberg's early monochrome white paintings that he first created in summer 1951. After creating a series of completely blank white paintings, Rauschenberg set out to discover whether an artwork could be produced entirely through erasure. He started with erasing his own drawings, but felt that the result was not sufficiently creative, so he decided to seek a drawing from another more established artist - clearly already a work of art - that he could erase. He approached de Kooning, an artist he admired, to ask for a drawing that he could erase to create a new work of art. After some persuasion, de Kooning gave Rauschenberg a densely worked drawing in crayon, ink, pencil and charcoal, deliberately steering away from works that he did not like, or simple pencil drawings that would be too easy for Rauschenberg to erase. It took Rauschenberg approximately two months to obliterate as much of de Kooning drawing as he could, using a variety of different erasers. The plain gilded frame and inscription by Jasper Johns are important parts of the work: without them, a viewer would struggle to interpret the work
-American graphic designer and Academy Award winning filmmaker, best known for his design of motion picture title sequences, film posters, and corporate logos
-During his 40-year career Bass worked for some of Hollywood's most prominent filmmakers, including Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, Billy Wilder, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese
-Among his most famous title sequences are the animated paper cut-out of a heroin addict's arm for Preminger's The Man with the Golden Arm, the credits racing up and down what eventually becomes a high-angle shot of a skyscraper in Hitchcock's North by Northwest, and the disjointed text that races together and apart in Psycho
-Bass designed some of the most iconic corporate logos in North America, including the Bell System logo in 1969, as well as AT&T's globe logo i
-He also designed Continental Airlines' 1968 jet stream logo and United Airlines' 1974 tulip logo, which became some of the most recognized airline industry logos of the era

Quotes and legacy:
-"My initial thoughts about what a title can do was to set mood and the prime underlying core of the film's story, to express the story in some metaphorical way. I saw the title as a way of conditioning the audience, so that when the film actually began, viewers would already have an emotional resonance with it."
-"Design is thinking made visible."
-"There is nothing glamorous in what I do. I'm a working man. Perhaps I'm luckier than most in that I receive considerable satisfaction from doing useful work which I, and sometimes others, think is good."
-"Symbolize and summarize."
-American humor magazine founded in 1952 by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines, launched as a comic book before it became a magazine
-widely imitated and influential, affecting satirical media as well as the cultural landscape of the 20th century
-The magazine is the last surviving title from the notorious and critically acclaimed EC Comics line, offering satire on all aspects of life and popular culture, politics, entertainment, and public figures
-Its format is divided into a number of recurring segments such as TV and movie parodies, as well as freeform articles
-Mad's mascot, Alfred E. Neuman, is typically the focal point of the magazine's cover, with his face often replacing that of a celebrity or character who is lampooned within the issue
-In 1977, Tony Hiss and Jeff Lewis wrote in The New York Times about the then 25-year-old publication's initial effect:
--> "The skeptical generation of kids it shaped in the 1950s is the same generation that, in the 1960s, opposed a war and didn't feel bad when the United States lost for the first time and in the 1970s helped turn out an Administration and didn't feel bad about that either... It was magical, objective proof to kids that they weren't alone, that in New York City on Lafayette Street, if nowhere else, there were people who knew that there was something wrong, phony and funny about a world of bomb shelters, brinkmanship and toothpaste smiles. Mad's consciousness of itself, as trash, as comic book, as enemy of parents and teachers, even as money-making enterprise, thrilled kids. In 1955, such consciousness was possibly nowhere else to be found. In a Mad parody, comic-strip characters knew they were stuck in a strip. For example, "Darnold Duck," for instance, begins wondering why he has only three fingers and has to wear white gloves all the time. He ends up wanting to murder every other Disney character. G.I. Schmoe tries to win the sexy Asiatic Red Army broad by telling her, "O.K., baby! You're all mine! I gave you a chance to hit me witta gun butt... But naturally, you have immediately fallen in love with me, since I am a big hero of this story."
-Mad is often credited with filling a vital gap in political satire from the 1950s to 1970s, when Cold War paranoia and a general culture of censorship prevailed in the United States, especially in literature for teens
-Pulitzer Prize-winning art comics maven Art Spiegelman said, "The message Mad had in general is, 'The media is lying to you, and we are part of the media.' It was basically... 'Think for yourselves, kids.'"
-formed in 1954 by the Comics Magazine Association of America as an alternative to government regulation, to allow the comic publishers to self-regulate the content of comic books in the United States
-it was another unintentionally radicalizing element established in the 50s
-initially created as a way to avoid government regulation on comic books
-established itself as a self-regulatory body with the job of issuing the CCA seal of approval only to those magazines that complied with a long list of decency guidelines
-thus, the comics industry would clean itself up without legislation requiring expensive legal enforcement
-code criteria:
1) crimes shall never be presented to create sympathy for the criminal, to promote distrust of the forces of law and justice, or to inspire others with a desire to imitate criminals
2) policemen, judges, government officials, and respected institutions shall never be presented as to create disrespect for established authority
3) profanity, obscenity, smut, vulgarity, or words or symbols with undesirable meanings are forbidden
4) no comic magazine shall use the words "horror" or "terror" in its title
5) in every instance, good shall triumph evil, and the criminal will be punished
-CCA was credited with single-handedly launching the Underground Comix movement of the 1960s and 70s
--> magazines started to make parody seals: "Approved by the Ghost Writers in the Sky"
-most amazing part of CCA was not that it was alive for 60 years but that it was established in the first place
-what is it about the assemblage of a vast number of humans that more often than not encourages uniform stupidity than intelligence?
-The Simpons quote: I hate advertising because it will happily make you feel bad about yourself if that will make you buy its product
-a pioneering magazine of "social-political-religious criticism and satire,"[1] intended as a hybrid of a grown-ups version of Mad and Lyle Stuart's anti-censorship monthly The Independent
-Edited and published by Paul Krassner, and often regarded as a milestone in the American underground or countercultural press of the mid-20th century, it was a nationally-distributed newsstand publication as early as 1959 (discontinued in 2001)
-The Realist provided a format for extreme satire in its articles, cartoons and Krassner's editorials, but it also carried more traditionally serious material in articles and interviews
-The magazine also published political commentary from Norman Mailer, Ken Kesey and Joseph Heller
-Among the more successful productions issued by Krassner was a red, white, and blue automobile bumper sticker, decorated with stars, which proclaimed "**** Communism"
--> communism and calling someone a communist was so bad it was censored. so putting "**** communism" together is picking at the ridiculousness of censorship
-His Disneyland Memorial Orgy poster, illustrated by Wally Wood, was a highlight of the magazine, so successful that Krassner printed it as a poster that was widely pirated
-Krassner's most successful prank was The Parts That Were Left Out of the Kennedy Book, a grotesque article following the censorship of William Manchester's book on the Kennedy assassination, The Death of a President
--> At the climax of the short story, Lyndon B. Johnson is on Air Force One sexually penetrating the bullet-hole wound in the throat of JFK's corpse
--> "Some members of the mainstream press and other Washington political wonks, including Daniel Ellsberg of Pentagon Papers fame, actually believed this incident to be true."
-The Realist was the first satirical magazine to publish conspiracy theories
--> When the magazine ran into financial difficulties in the 1970s, it was the conspiracy theory element that attracted ex-Beatle John Lennon to donate; saying, "If anything ever happens to me...it won't be an accident."
-Zap Comix was an underground comix series which was originally part of the youth counterculture of the late 1960s
-Zap #1 was published in San Francisco in late 1968. It featured the work of satirical cartoonist Robert Crumb
-Shortly before Zap #3 was to be published, Crumb found photocopies of that earlier issue, drew new covers, and published it as Zap #0
--> Thus Zap #0 became the third in the series (even though it was drawn before #1 in 1967), and Zap #3 the fourth
-The first issue was sold on the streets of Haight-Ashbury out of a baby stroller pushed by Crumb's wife, Dana on the first day.
-After the success of the first issue, Crumb opened the pages of Zap to several other artists
-This stable of artists, along with Crumb, remained mostly constant throughout the history of Zap, which published sporadically after the collapse of the underground comix market in the mid-1970s
--> After that it was typical for three to five years to pass between new issues (Zap #15 came out in 2005, seven years after the previous issue)

-Premiering in 1968, Zap #1 was unlike any comic book sensibility that had been seen before. Labeled "Fair Warning: For Adult Intellectuals Only", it featured the publishing debut of Crumb's much-bootlegged "Keep on Truckin'" imagery, an early appearance of unreliable holy man Mr. Natural and his neurotic disciple Flakey Foont, and the first of innumerable self-caricatures (in which Crumb calls himself "a raving lunatic", and "one of the world's last great medieval thinkers"). Perhaps most notable was the story "Whiteman", which detailed the inner torment seething within the lusty, fearful heart of an outwardly upright American. While a few small-circulation self-published satirical comic books had been printed prior to this, Zap #1 became the model for the "comix" movement that snowballed after its release.
-The contents of the first Zap were not intended to be the debut issue. Crumb had drawn a completely different issue's worth of comics, but the artwork was stolen prior to publication. Rather than repeat himself, Crumb drew a new assortment of strips, which replaced the missing issue. Fortunately, Crumb had made Xerox copies of the missing pages, which (according to fellow Zap contributor Victor Moscoso) successfully captured the linework but not the solid blacks. After being re-inked, those cartoons subsequently appeared as Zap #0 (which was first published about the same time as Zap #3).
-a 1973 anthology of journalism edited by Tom Wolfe and E. W. Johnson
-The book is both a manifesto for a new type of journalism by Wolfe, and a collection of examples of New Journalism by American writers, covering a variety of subjects from the frivolous (baton twirling competitions) to the deadly serious (the Vietnam War)
-The pieces are notable because they do not conform to the standard dispassionate and even-handed model of journalism, rather they incorporate literary devices usually only found in fictional works
-His manifesto for New Journalism (although he had no great affection for the term) has four main points:
1) Scene by scene construction: Rather than rely on second-hand accounts and background information, Wolfe considers it necessary for the journalist to witness events first hand, and to recreate them for the reader
2) Dialogue: By recording dialogue as fully as possible, the journalist is not only reporting words, but defining and establishing character, as well as involving the reader
3) The third person: Instead of simply reporting the facts, the journalist has to give the reader a real feeling of the events and people involved. One technique for achieving this is to treat the protagonists like characters in a novel. What is their motivation? What are they thinking?
4) Status details: Just as important as the characters and the events, are the surroundings, specifically what people surround themselves with. Wolfe describes these items as the tools for a "social autopsy", so we can see people as they see themselves.
-The excerpt from In Cold Blood, is the fifth text in the anthology
-an American computer professional who leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) to the mainstream media, starting in June 2013
-A former system administrator for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and a counterintelligence trainer at the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), he later worked for Dell assigned as a contractor to U.S. National Security Agency facilities in the United States and inside an NSA outpost in Japan
-In June 2013, he came to international attention after disclosing to several media outlets thousands of classified documents that he acquired while working as an NSA contractor for Dell and Booz Allen Hamilton
-Snowden's leaked documents revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many of them run by the NSA and the Five Eyes with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments
-A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor
-His disclosures have fueled debates over mass surveillance, government secrecy, and the balance between national security and information privacy
-Two court rulings since the initial leaks have split on the constitutionality of the NSA's bulk collection of telephone metadata
-On June 14 the U.S. Department of Justice charged him with two counts of violating the Espionage Act and theft of government property, punishable by up to 30 years in prison; The U.S. Department of State revoked his passport on June 22
-On June 23, Snowden flew to Moscow's International Airport
--> ABC News reported that Snowden "could not enter Russia because he did not have a Russian visa and he could not travel to safe haven opportunities in Latin America because the United States had canceled his passport."
--> Snowden remained in the airport transit zone for 39 days, during which time he applied for asylum (the protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee) in 21 countries
--> On August 1, 2013, Russian authorities granted him a one-year temporary asylum
--> A year later, Russia issued Snowden a three-year residency permit allowing him to travel freely within the country and to go abroad for no longer than three months
--> Now, Snowden lives in an undisclosed location in Russia and reportedly feels very secure in Moscow
-an American photographer and writer noted for photographs of deviant and marginal people (dwarfs, giants, transgender people, nudists, circus performers) or of people whose normality seems ugly or surreal
-In 1972, a year after she took her own life, Arbus became the first American photographer to have photographs displayed at the Venice Biennale
-Arbus's most well-known individual photographs include: "Child with Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park", "Teenage Couple on Hudson Street", "Triplets in Their Bedroom", "Richard and Marylin Dauria", "A Young Man in Curlers at Home on West 20th Street", "Boy With a Straw Hat Waiting to March in a Pro-War Parade", "Identical Twins", "A Family on Their Lawn One Sunday", "A Naked Man Being a Woman", "A Very Young Baby", "A Jewish Giant at Home with His Parents"
-Diane Arbus is the best known female photographer of her generation
-her most widely cited quotations:
--> "My favorite thing is to go where I've never been"
--> "Our whole guise is like giving a sign to the world to think of us in a certain way but there's a point between what you want people to know about you and what you can't help people knowing about you. And that has to do with what I've always called the gap between intention and effect."
--> "Freaks was a thing I photographed a lot.... Most people go through life dreading they'll have a traumatic experience. Freaks were born with their trauma. They've already passed their test in life. They're aristocrats."
--> "I do feel I have some slight corner on something about the quality of things. I mean it's very subtle and a little embarrassing to me, but I really believe there are things which nobody would see unless I photographed them."
-The Americans, by Robert Frank, was a highly influential book in post-war American photography
-The photographs were notable for their distanced view of both high and low strata of American society
-The book as a whole created a complicated portrait of the period that was viewed as skeptical of contemporary values and evocative of ubiquitous loneliness
-Frank secured a Guggenheim Fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 1955 to travel across the United States and photograph its society at all strata
--> He took his family along with him for part of his series of road trips over the next two years, during which time he took 28,000 shots. Only 83 of those were finally selected by him for publication in The Americans
--> Frank's journey was not without incident: While driving through Arkansas, Frank was arbitrarily thrown in jail for three days after being stopped by the police who accused him of being a communist (their reasons: he was shabbily dressed, he was Jewish, he had letters about his person from people with Russian sounding names, his children had foreign sounding names - Pablo & Andrea, and he had foreign whiskey with him). He was also told by a sheriff elsewhere in the South that he had "an hour to leave town."
-Frank found a tension in the gloss of American culture and wealth over race and class differences, which gave his photographs a clear contrast to those of most contemporary American photojournalists, as did his use of unusual focus, low lighting and cropping that deviated from accepted photographic techniques
-The book initially received substantial criticism in the U.S. Popular Photography, for one, derided Frank's images as "meaningless blur, grain, muddy exposures, drunken horizons and general sloppiness."
-Though sales were also poor at first, Kerouac's introduction helped it reach a larger audience because of the popularity of the Beat phenomenon
-Over time and through its inspiration of later artists, The Americans became considered a seminal work in American photography and art history, and the work with which Frank is most clearly identified
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