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a series of reactions that break down large carbohydrates, lipids, and protein molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by body cells
consists of various movements that increases surface area of the food to allow a thorough mixing with the digestive enzymes
the movement of the end products of digestion through the gastrointestinal tract wall into the blood or lymph for circulation to cells
what are the 2 main groups that the organs of digestion are divided into
gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs
what are the organs of the digestive tract
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine
what are the accessory digestive organs
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
a double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines
part of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and to the colon and covering the intestines
forms the floor of the oral cavity and is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane
these lie outside the mouth and secrete the major portion of saliva through ducts, which enter into the oral cavity
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
j shaped enlargement of the GI tract which begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the duodenum (first part of small intestine)
glands of the mucosa of the stomach that secrete HCl and hydrolytic enzymes (primarily pepsinogen, the inactive form of pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme), which begins the enzymatic, or chemical breakdown of protein foods.
what are the 4 types of secreting cells that make up the gastric glands
chief cells, parietal cells, mucous cells and G cells
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach. it allows for the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen, relaxes the pyloric sphincter and increases motility
Gentle, ripping, peristalic movements that pass over the stomach every 15 to 25 seconds; softens and mixes food with gastric secretions to form chyme
consists of the conversion of protein into peptides by the action of the enzyme pepsin
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
peptic hormone produced by the mucous lining of the small intestine. decrease gastric secretion and motility
converts the stomach acid contents to a slightly alkaline pH. also inhibits stomach pepsin activity and promotes the activity of the pancreatic enzymes
cells that secrete bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for concentration and temporary storage
sac that hangs from the lower front margin of the liver. it functions to store and concentrate the bile produced by the liver
name the subdivisions of the large intestine
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal
name the 6 functions of the digestive system
2. mechanical processing
double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend portions of digestive tract within peritoneal cavity by sheets of serous membrane
cells that secrete hormones that coordinate activities of the digestive trace and accessory organs
a narrow band of smooth muscle and elastic fibers on the outer portion of the mucosa, contraction of this move the mucosal folds and villi
The layer of epithelial tissue that lines body cavities in contact with the outside environment (respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts).
a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body except in oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and rectum
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
submandibular salivary gland
located along the floor of the mouth in the mandibular grooves;
secrete a mixture of buffers, mucins and salivary amylase
Glands located in the walls of the stomach, secreting the hormone gastrin in response to certain substances in food.
what part of the small intestine is the location of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption
transverse folds in the intestinal lining. Permanent features, do not disappear when intestine fills.
brush border enzyme that does not participate directly in digestion, but does activate trypsinogen
those in the submucosa of duodenum that secrete alkaline mucus to help neutralize acidic chyme
Enzyme in pancreatic juice that breaks down triglycerides (fats and oils), creating fatty acids and monoglycerides
what are the 3 structures of the portal area
branch of hepatic portal vein, branch of hepatic artery proper, small branch of bile duct
the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon
the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
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