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95 terms

Rhetorical Devices and Satire Vocab

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absolute language
describes something but lacks degrees; characteristic can't be more or less, has to be yes or no
-help speaker convey confidence, self assurance, strong tone
ad hominem fallacy
litterally means "against the person"; part of argumentation, doesn't address soundness of another side's argument; attacks character of person conveying argument instead
allusion
indirect reference to commonly known thing, ie event, book, myth, place, art
-speaker can use as comparative tool to appeal to audience's emotions (pathos)
anadiplosis
repetition of the last word (or phrase) from the previous line, clause, or sentence at the beginning of the next
analogy
similarity or comparison btwn 2 different thigns or relationship btwn them; can explain something unfamiliar by associating it w/ something familiar
-can make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging
anaphora
repeating a word or phrase at beginning of successive clauses or sentences for emphasis and rhythm
-often used to place emphasis on or draw attention to what it said
antimetabole
repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order
-often used to place emphasis on or draw attention to what is said
antithesis
juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas, often in parallel structure
-used to show contrast or opposition of thoughts
aphorism
concise statement of a principle of precept
asyndeton
leaving out the usual conjunctions btwn coordinate sentence elements
-emphasizes or creates specific rhythm or pace
-rush series of clauses together w/o conjunctions, as if tumbled togther by emotional haste
chiasmus
crossing parallelism, where 2nd part of grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by first part, only in reverse order; instead of A,B structure paralleled by another A,B structure, A,B is followed by B,A
-often used to place emphasis on or draw attention to what is said
colloquial language
use of slang or informalities in speech or writing
-generally not acceptable for formal writing; gives conversational familiar tone
complex sentence
sentence with an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
conditional sentence
sentence that focuses on a question of truth or fact, introduced by 'if' or its equivalent
-often works as method for speaker to appeal to audience's logic or common sense
cumulative sentence (loose sentence)
sentence that begins with independent clause and finishes with series of modifying constructions (phrases and/or clauses)
declarative sentence
sentence that makes a statement
-can communicate or emphasize thta speaker/writier is confident
epistrophe
repetition of group of words at end of successive clauses
-often used to place emphasis on what is said
hyperbole
exaggeration or embellishment for effect or to make a point
imagery
evokes particular sensations or emotionally rich experiences in reader; calls up sensations of sight, taste, smell, touch, heat, pressure
-make abstracts and/or feelings concrete; often carries rich connotative meanings
imperative sentence
gives a direct command to someone; can have implied subject "you"
independent clause
word group containing a subject and predicate that can stand alone as a sentence
juxtaposition
placing 2 ideas, words, or pictures side by side so that their closeness creates a new, sometimes ironic meaning
metaphor
implied comparison btwn 2 unlike things that doesn't use word 'like,' 'as,' 'so', or 'than'; most important of all tropes (figurative language)
metonymy
figure of speech where a thing associated w/ a person, place, or thing stands in for the original thing
parallelism
set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses that appears in sentence or paragraph; involves arrangement so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased
-can be used as rhythmic technique as a subtle repetition device emphasizing what is said and makes content more memorable
pathos
appeal to emotions or interests of audience so that they will be sympathetically inclined to accept a writer/speaker's afgument
-typically includes connotatively loaded diction, imagery, and/or figurative language to appeal to human emotions
-effect of emotional appeal often eclipses other appeals, so if writers want audience to act, not just reason, they often appeal to emotions
periodic sentence
sentence beginning w/ series of subordinate modifying phrases and clauses, often creating crescendo effect, and then ending w/ forceful independent clause
-sentence only makes sense when end of sentence is reached
personification
figurative language which gives human qualitities and characteristics to non-human entities
polysyndeton
use of many conjunctions to separate clauses and phrases; often serves as tool to manipulate narrative pace of writing
-tends t obe used to slow the pace; can also create sense of build-up or crescendo
qualifying language
word or sentence element limiting (or qualifying) another word, phrase, or clause
reductio ad absurdum
argumetative fallacy where proposition is disproven by following its implications logically to an absurd consequence
rhetorical question
question posed by speaker/writer not to seek an answer but instead to affirm or deny a point simply by asking a question about it
-used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement; can appeal to audience's common sense or logic
simile
explicit comparison btwn 2 unlike things signaled by use of 'like, as, so, than'
subordinate clause
group of words including a subject and verb but can't stand on its own as a sentence; linked to independent clause by subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun; can function as an adjective, adverb, noun
syllogism
series of statements where a logical conclustion is drawn from inarguable premises
synecdoche
figure of speech where part of something is used to refer to its whole
understatement (aka litotes)
common figure of speech where literal sense of what is said falls detectably short of (or 'under') the magnitude of what is being talked about
zuegma
figure of speech where one word, usually preposition or verb, yokes together 2 other elements that are unrelated
antiphrasis
a word that's usually ironic and implies the exact oppposite of its literal meaning
conceit
entire work is one long metaphor; almost mawkish (sickly sentimental)
ellipsis
when words are left out and it's understood what is missing; ie "I am a man of conscience, of moral fiber."
indefinite pronoun
refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named
paradox
statement that seems contradictory, but makes sense; extended version of oxymoron; ie my only love sprang from my only hate
situational irony
expect one thing, get something else; mostly in fiction
dramatic irony
reader knows something that characters don't; mostly in fiction
verbal irony
devices that create irony, ie antiphrasis; in fiction and non-fiction
monosyllabic
one syllable, can manipulate to cater to audiences
polysyllabic
multiple syllables, can manipulate to cater to audiences
euphonious
pleasant sounding; onomatopoetic words, cater to audiences
cacophonous
sharp sounding words; onomatopoetic words, cater to audience
literal/denotative
dictionary meaning
figurative/connotative
"picture" meaning
prosaic
takes its time, paragraph writing
poetic
concentrated, ambiguity in word choice intended by authors
objective
journalistic, without bias
subjective
may have bias
concrete
mostly nouns; tangible; able to touch, smell, hear
abstract
mostly nouns; not tangible; emotions, ideologies, philosophical
pedestrian
common "everyday" talk
pedantic/inflated/overly formal
very formal language; scholarly
volugarity
swearing, double entendres
slang
euphemisms (saying "not so nice" thinkgs in nice ways); generational
jargon
specific to certain fields; ie lawyers' jargon, computer geeks
cliche
worn out expressions
informal/idiomatic/dialectal
verancular, dialects
fromal
anything cerenomial or academic
simple sentence
one and only one independent clause, not necessarily short sentences-adding prepositional and infinitives
compound sentence
2+ indpendent clauses, generally joined by FANBOYS and comma
compound-complex sentence
2+ independent clauses and 2+ dependent clauses
exclamatory sentence
declarative sentence with exclamation point
interrogative
questions (include rhetorical questions)
natural/basic sentence
start with subject, then verb
parallel sentence
listing of 2+ things in grammatic form; similar structure
balanced sentence
parallel structure-only 2 things in comparison or contrast with grammatic equivalency; ie parallel word phrases, clause structure, paragraph
interrupted sentence
ie using dashes, ellipses, part of dialogue to interrupt something
inverted sentence
stars with verb, then subject; ie Stand I. vs. I stand; corrupting natural order
oxymoron
specialized kinds of antithesis; pairing of 2 words; ie jumbo shrimp
catalogue/listing
ie Merriwether Lewis; can reveal a style; ie journalistic
apposition (appositive)
modifies noun, set apart by commas
paranthetical
another form of apposition, just set in paranthesis instead of commas; interrupter; additional information
epanalepsis
use same word or phrase at beginning and end of sentence
assonance
repetition of vowel sounds; ie hoop, scoop, droop
consonance
repetition of consonant sounds anywhere in words; ie killer, locked
alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds at beginning of words; ie killer crept closer
onomatopoeia
batman words; ie pow, shazam, zowie
zeugma (specifically, mesozeugma)
yoking together 2 unlike things with either verb or preposition
syllepsis
comic zeugma
spatial organization
arrangement of ideas in a speech according to location or position
chronological organization
ordering ideas by time
logical/syllogistic organization
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parallel organization
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balanced organization
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juxtaposed/antithetical organization
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periodic organization
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aphoristic organization
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