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+ RNA virus, Enterovirus- Polio disease, Picornavirus shape, Rhinovirus- Common cold


+RNA virus, Hepatovirus- Hepatitis A, Picornavirus shape


+RNA, Rubella virus- Rubella ( German measles)
Equine encephalitis virus- Equine encephalitis
Togavirus shape


+RNA, Flavivirus- Yellow fever- transmit by mosquito
Togavirus shape

Retroviridae ( 2 copies)

+RNA, HTLV-I =Adult leukemia, tumors


-RNA, Morbillivirus- Measles
Paramyxorirus shape


- RNA, Lyssavirus- Rabies

Orthomyxoviridae ( 1 copy in 8 segments)

-RNA, Influenzavirus- Influenza A & B
9 pieces of RNA


-RNA, Filovirus- Marburg, Ebola

Bunyaviridae ( 1 copy in 3 segments)

-RNA, Hantavirus- Respiratory distress, hemorrhagic fevers

Reoviridae ( 1 copy in 10-12 segments)

Double stranded RNA, Rotavirus- Respiratory and gastrointestinal infection - Reovirus shape

Adenoviridae ( linear DNA)

DNA virus, Human adenoviruses - Respiratory infection- Adenovirus shape

Herpesviridae ( linear DNA)

DNA virus, Simplexvirus- Oral and genital herpes, Varicellovirus- Chickenpox, shingles - Herpesvirus


DNA virus, Orthopoxvirus- Smallpox, cowpox

Papovaviridae ( circular DNA)

DNA, human papilloma viruses- WArts, cervial and penile cancers, reovirus shape


DNA, Hepatitis B virus- Hepatitis B

parvoviridae ( linear DNA)

Single stranded DNA viruses, B19-Fifth disease (everythema infectiousum) in children, picornavirus.

Adsorption - 1

the attachment of viruses to host cells
Is chemical attraction. It requires specific protein recognition factors found in the phage tail fibers that bind to specific receptor sites on the host cells.


the entry of virions ( or thier genome) into host cells
Enzyme lysozyme present in phage tails, weakens the bacterial cell wall.


the synthesis of new nucleic acid molecules, capsid proteins, and other viral components within host cells while using the metabolic machinery of those cells


the assembly of newly synthesized viral components into complete virions


The departure of new virions from host cells. Release generally, but not always, kills (lyses) host cells

Burst time

the time from adsorption to release is called.
It varies from 20-40 minutes for different phages.

Attachment stage

Attachment of tail fibers to cell wall proteins
Attachment of spilkes, capsid or envelope to plasma membrane protein

Penetration stage

Injection of viral nucleic acid through bacterial cell wall
Endocytosis or fusion ( animal virus)

Uncoating stage

None needed on bacteriophage, Enzymatic digestion of viral proteins on animal virus

Synthesis stage

In cytoplasm- in cytoplasm RNA viruses or DNA viruses, bacterial synthesis ceased- host cell synthesis ceased, viral DNA or RNA replicated, formation of viral mRNA- same on animal virus
Viral components synthesized- viral component synthesized

Maturation stage

Addition of collar, sheath, base plate and tail fibers to viral nucleic acid containing head
Insertion of viral nucleic acid into capsid


Host cell lysis- Budding ( enveloped viruses), cell rupture ( nonenvelopedviruses)

Chronic infection

Latency, chronic infection, cancer


are very different from viruses, each viroid is solely a small RNA molecule


are infectious particles made of protein. Research indicates that prions are normal proteins that become folded incorrectly


are viral genes that cause host cells to divide uncontrollably


A chemical component that is found in all viruses is


A common polyhedral capsid shape of viruses is a


What type of viruses contain the enzyme lysozyme to aid in their infection?


Viruses that infect bacteria are called


parasites can be divided into , such as ticks and lice, which live on the surface of other organisms.


such as some protoza and worms which live within the bodies of other organisms

Obligate parasites

Most parasites are, they must spend at least soem of their life cycle in or on a host

facultative parasites

are free living such some soil fungi but they obtain nutrients from a host

Permanent parasites

such as tapeworms, remain in or on a host once they have invaded

Temporary parasites

such as many biting insects, feed on and then leave their host

Accidental parasites

invade an organism other than their normal host


refer to a parasite itself having parasites
such as mosquitoes, insect or many human parasitic diseases.

Biological vector

A vector in which the parasite goes through part of its life cycle is a

Mechanical vector

is a vector in which the parasite does not go through any part of tis life cycle during transit

definitive host

hosts are classified as ... if they harbor a parasite while it reproduces sexually

intermediate hosts

If they harbor the parasite during some other developmental stages.

Mosquito is

because parasite reproduces sexually in the mosquito.

Human is

mediate host

REservoir host

are infected organisms that makes parasites available for transmission to other hosts.

Host specificity

refer to the range of different host in which a parasite can mature.

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