Chapter 28- The Reproductive System

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sperm
The male reproductive system produces ___ which is transferred to the female.
testosterone
A hormone that is produced by the male reproductive system is ___.
cryptorchidism
What is the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum during puberty called?
testes
The male gonads are called ___.
seminiferous tubules
The site of sperm production in the testes is called ___.
interstitial cells of Leydig
The ___ produce testosterone in the testes.
inguinal canal
The testes develop within the abdominal cavity and move through the ___ during the first 7-8 months of fetal development.
spermatogenesis
Spermatozoa production within the seminiferous tubules (ST) is called ___. This production begins at puberty and produces several hundred million per day.
Sertoli cells
Within the seminiferous tubules, ___ , or nurse cells, nourish germ cells and produce some hormones.
blood-testes barrier
The Sertoli cells control what passes through the ___ which protects sperm against immune system attack.
Germ cells
In spermatogenesis, the spermatogonia (or ___) divides by mitosis to form the primary spermatocyte.
meiosis 1
In spermatogenesis, the primary spermatocyte divides by ___ to form the secondary spermatocyte.
spermatid
In spermatogenesis, the secondary spermatocyte divides by meiosis 2 to form the ___ which develops a head and tail and becomes the spermatozoa.
acrosome
The ___ is the part of the spermatozoa that binds to the female egg and creates a passageway for the spermatozoa's genetic information to reach the egg's.
mitochondria
The midpiece of the spermatozoa contains ___ which power the whip-like motions of the flagellum and propels the spermatozoa towards the egg.
rete testis
The drainage sequence for produced sperm starts with the seminiferous tubules where they are produced then flows into the ___ that then drain the sperm into the vas efferentia and then finally flows into the epididymus.
epididymus
The site of maturation and sperm storage before ejaculation occurs is called the ___.
vas deferens
The ___ conveys with the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity. This is the part that is severed in a vasectomy.
peristalsis
The vas deferens transports the sperm from the epididymus to the urethra with the aid of ___.
ejaculatory duct
The ___ is formed from the vas deferens and the duct that drains the seminal vesicles.
urethra
The passageway for urine and sperm is called the ___.
prostatic urethra
The ___ is the section of the urethra that passes through the prostate.
membranous urethra
The ___ is the section of the urethra that lies in between the two sections of the urethra.
spongy urethra
The ___ is the section of the urethra that runs down the shaft of the penis.
semen
The combination of sperm and the reproductive gland secretions is called ___.
5%
The testes contribute spermatozoa to semen and represents about ___ of total semen volume.
seminal vesicles
The ___ has a fluid that contains fructose to nourish the sperm, PGs, and fibrinogen.
60%
The seminal vesicles represent about ___ of the total semen volume.
bulbourethral gland
The ___ produces an alkaline pre-ejaculate.
5%
The bulbourethral glad represents about ___ of the total semen volume.
prostate gland
The ___ have an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidic vagina and also includes clotting factors.
30%
The prostate gland represents ___ of the total semen volume.
coagulate
Sperm is needed to ___ temporarily within the vagina after ejaculation to ensure that it remains there to later become mobile again and swim onward.
arousal
The first step of the expulsion of semen is ___ where the parasympathetic division ANS is required.
erection
The second step of the expulsion of semen is ___ where the arteries within the erectile tissues dilate and fill with blood which compresses veins and cannot drain.
emission
The third step of the expulsion of semen is ___ where a discharge of semen from the seminal glands occurs and requires the sympathetic division ANS.
ejaculation
The fourth step of the expulsion of semen is ___ where the semen is forced through the urethra.
resolution
The fifth step of the expulsion of semen is ___ which occurs after ejaculation and the penis becomes flaccid again.
75-400 million
The normal sperm count in semen is anywhere between ___ mililiters of semen.
impotence
The inability to achieve and maintain erection, both physically and psychologically, is called ___.
FSH
The hormone ___ binds to Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules and promotes spermatogenesis. It's primary effect is on granulosa cells.
LH
The hormone ___ binds to Leydig cells and increases testosterone synthesis. It's initial effect is on theca cells and later effects granulosa cells.
inhibin
The hormone ___ inhibits FSH secretion from the testes and has negative feedback.
female reproduction
The ____ system produces ovum (female gamete), produces female sex hormones, houses developing fetus, and nourishes the infant.
fallopian tube
The flow of the egg starts in the ovaries, goes through the ___ into the uterus and out the vagina.
oogonium
The female cell that undergoes mitosis before birth is called the ___.
primary oocyte
The female germ cell produced prior to birth is called ___.
secondary oocyte
The female germ cell generated from meiosis 1 is called ___.
ovum
What is the haploid female gamete?
primary follicle
What is primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells?
28 days
The cycle of the primary follicle turning into a secondary follicle then into a Graafian follicle takes about ____.
Graafian follicle
A fluid filled follicle with theca interna and theca externa is called ___.
ovulation
The release of the secondary oocyte from the Graafian follicle is called ___.
corpus luteum
The ___ develops follicles into a secretory unit after ovulation, produces progesterone and estrogen, and then degenerates within 10-12 days without pregnancy.
corpus albicans
When the corpus luteum degenerates because pregnancy didn't occur, the follicles becomes ___.
polar bodies
At the end of division of the female sex cells 1 ovum is produced (oogonium) and 3 unused ___.
GnRh
With the beginning of puberty, the cyclic release of ___ begins which fosters the two hormones LH and FH.
mensus
The sloughing off or expulsion of the endometrium is called ___.
1-5
On day(s) ___, the mensus is occuring.
6-14
On day(s) ___, follicular or proliferative phase is occuring.
14
On day(s) ___, there is a LH surge.
11-15
On day(s) ___, there is a fertilization window.
21
On day(s) ___, the endometrium is ready for implantation.
25-26
On day(s) ___, the corpus luteum degenerates without pregnancy.
HCG
With fertilization, ___ is produced by the embryo and maintains the corpus luteum until the placenta is functional.
estrogen
___ is released from the corpus luteum and causes endometrial cells to proliferate while also stimulating production of progesterone receptors within uterine walls.
progesterone
___ is released from the corpus luteum and causes hypertrophy of the endometrium.
PMS
___ occurs around days 25-28 of the cycle and is associated with rapid decline of female steroid hormones.
fertilization
What occurs in the upper 1/3 of the fallopian tube?
lactation
What is the milk production by mammary glands?
prolactin
What is responsible for milk production?
oxytocin
What is responsible for milk letdown?
menopause
What is the cessation of menstruation between about 40-50 years old?
zygote
When the sperm binds to the secondary oocyte and fertilization occurs, the cell is now called a ___, or a fertilized ovum.
blastocyst
Within 3-4 days after fertilization, the zygote becomes a fluid-filled cell mass called ___.
blastocoel
The fluid-filled cavity associated with the blastocyst is called ___.
inner cell mass
What is the tissue from which the embryo will develop?
trophoblast
What surrounds the blastocoel, secretes enzymes that digest endometrial cells of the uterus and allows blastocyst to implant, secretes HCG, and forms the placenta?
prenatal period
The time from conception to birth is called the ___.
germinal period
Within the first 2 weeks, germ layers are formed during what is known as the ___.
embryonic period
During the 2nd through 8th weeks, most organ systems are developed during what is known as the ___.
fetal period
During the last 7 months of a pregnancy, the ___ is the phase in which the baby is growing.
sterilzation
Which control of pregnancy involves a vasectomy and tubal ligation?
behavioral
Which control of pregnancy involves abstinence, coitus interruptus, and the rhythm method?
barrier methods
Which control of pregnancy involves condoms or spermicidial agents?
chemical methods
Which control of pregnancy involves oral contraceptives?
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