390 terms

AP Human Geography (The Cultural Landscape-Rubenstein) Vocabulary

These are the vocabulary words from Rubenstein's AP Human Geography textbook. Chapter-1: Thinking Geographically Chapter-2: Population Chapter-3: Migration Chapter-4: Folk and popular culture Chapter-5: Language Chapter-6: Religion Chapter-7: Ethnicity Chapter-8: Political Geography Chapter-9: Development Chapter-10: Agriculture Chapter-11: Industry Chapter-12: Services Chapter-13: Urban Patterns Chapter-14: Resource Issues
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Chapter 1
Thinking Geographically
globalization
greater cultural and economic interaction among people all over the world
geography
The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life
human geography
The study of where and why human activities are located where they are
physical geography
The study where and why natural forces occur as they do
map
A two-dimension or flat scale model of something
place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
region
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
scale
the relationship between the portion of Earth being studies and Earth as a whole
space
the physical gap or intervals between two objects
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
cartography
the science of mapmaking
map projection
the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map
Land Ordinance of 1785
divided much of the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
GIS (geographic information system)
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date
remote sensing
the acquisition of data from a satellite orbiting Earth or from another long-distance method
GPS (global positioning system)
a system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth
location
the position that something occupies on Earth
toponym
the name given to a place on Earth
site
physical character of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to other places
meridian
an arc drawn between North and South poles
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator
longitude
numbering system for meridians (axis between
North and South poles)
prime meridian
0 degrees longitude - passes through Greenwich, England
latitude
numbering system for parallels
equator
0 degrees latitude
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
master reference time for all points on Earth
Chapter-2
Population
Age distribution
The proportion of individuals of different ages within a population. You can use an age distribution to estimat survival by calculating the difference in proportion of individuals in succeeding age classes
Agricultural revolution
the development of farming
Arithmetic Population Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Capacity
the amount of people an area can support
Census
A complete enumeration of a population
Child Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population
Chronic Diseases
Generally long - lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies (<== squiggly check spell!)
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of live births yearly per 1,000 people in a population. (natality)
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths yearly per 1,000 people in a population
Demographic equation
NIR = CBR - CDR
Demographic momentum
is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model
Demographic Transition
High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain, this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level
Demographic Transition model:
the steps through which a society progresses
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio
the number of people who can't work
Doubling Time
the time it takes for an area's population to double
Ecumene
the area of land occupied by humans
Epidemiological transition
The a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries' population changes
Eugenic Population Policies
Government policies designed to favor one racial
sector over others
Expansive Popluation Policies
Government policies that encourage large families
and raise the rate of population growth
Exponential growth
growth by a percentile instead of a static number
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society
J-curve
The shape of a line graph of population graph when growth is exponential
Life Expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
Malthus, Thomas (Thomas Malthus)
British economist of late 1700's. considered the first to predict a population crisis
Medical Revolution
the leap of medical knowledge in stage 2 of the demographic transition
Megalopolis
Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world.
Mortality
the rate at which people die
Natality Rate (NIR)
number of birth/ year to every 1000 people in the population
Natural Increase
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
Neo-Malthusians
group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources
Overpopulation
too many people in one place for the resources available
Physiological Population Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population Composition
Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distribution
Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live
Population Explosion
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever- shorter doubling times and sccelerating rates of increase.
Population Projection
Estimation of future population growth, by extrapolating current trends and known growth factors
Population Pyramids
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Restrictive Popluation Policies
Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Sex ratio
the ratio of men to women
Standard of living
The goods a services and their distribution within a population
Stationary Population Level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow
Sustainability
The level of development that can be maintained without depleting resources
Total Fertility rate
the average number of children a woman has
underpopulation (Is that even a real word??)
A drop or decrease in a region's population
Zero population growth (ZPG)
Where natural birth rate declines to equal crude birth rate and the natural rate of population approaches 0
Chapter-3
Migration
Activity Space
the space within which daily activity occurs
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Chain Migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circulation
short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
distance decay function
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
emigration
migration from a location
immigration
migration to a location
forced migration
permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
voluntary migration
permanent movement undertaken by choice
gravity model
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
guest worker
a person with temporary permission to work in another country
internal migration
permanent movement within the same country
international migration
permanent movement from one country to another
intervening obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
migration transition
change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
migration stream
A constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination
migration selectivity
Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate
mobility
the quality of moving freely
net migration
the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
push factors
factors that induce people to leave old residences
pull factors
factors that induce people to move to a new location
refugee
people who are forced to migrate from thier home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of thier race, religion, nationality, membership of a social group, of political opinion
urbanization
an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements
suburbanization
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe
counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
interregional migration
movement from one region of a country to another
intraregional
movement within a region
Chapter-4
Folk and popular culture
Artifact
Any item, made by humans, that represents a material aspect of culture
Built environment
The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings
Core-domain-sphere model
The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest
Cultural convergence
The contact and interaction of one culture to another
Cultural/environmental perception
The concept that people of different culture will definitely observe and interpret their environment and make different decision about its nature, potentiality and use
Cultural landscape
Modifications to the environment by humans, including the built environment and agricultural systems, that reflect aspects if their culture
Cultural realm
The entire region throughout which a culture prevails. Criteria that may be chosen to define culture realms include religion, language, diet, customs, or economic development
Cultural hearth
Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose
Cultural complex
The group of traits that define a particular culture
Cultural trait
The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture
Cultural region
a region defined by similar culture traits and cultural landscape features
Custom
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group
Environmental determinism
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions
Folk culture (folkways)
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Food attraction
Reasons certain culture/region eat certain types of food
Habit
a repetitive act that a particular individual performs
Material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Mentifact
The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs, including language, religion, folklore, and etc.
Popular culture
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods
Possibilism
The theory that the physical may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Sociofact
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions
Taboo
a restriction on a behavior imposed by a social custom
Uniform Landscape
the spatial expression of a popular custom in one location that will be similar to another
Expansion diffusion
the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area
Relocation diffusion
sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate the new ones
Chapter-5
Language
Ebonics
a dialect spoken by some African Americans
Franglais
the widespread use of english in the french language, A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively
Spanglish
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans
Lingua Franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
accent
the manner in which people speak and the way words are pronounced in different parts of the world
dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
ideogram
symbol that stands for a concept rather than a word
isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family
language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
language family
a collection of languages related to each other through a commmon ancestor long before recorded history
literary tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken
mono-linguality
Speaking only one language
bi-linguality
Speaking two languages
multi-linguality
Speaking several languages
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
orthography
the study of where languages are found/located
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
toponym
the name by which a geographical place is known
trade language
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other
vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as
distinguished from literary language) My Example = SWAG rather than CHARISMATIC CONFIDENCE!
BRP
British Received Pronounciation. The dialect of English assosciated with upper class britons living in the london area now considered a standard
creole
a language that results from the th mixing of a colonizer's langage with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Vulgar Latin
nonclassical Latin dialects spoken in the Roman Empire
Esperanto
A made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language
linguistics
study of language
Chapter-6
Religion
Animism
belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Autonomous religion
a religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally
Branch
a large and fundamental division within a religion
Caste
the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
Cosmogony
a set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
Denomination
a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Diocese
the basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
Ethnic religion
a religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principle are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Fundamentalism
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect)
Ghetto
during the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of the city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Hierarchical religion
a religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
Missionary
an individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion
Monotheism
the doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
Pagan
a follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
Pilgrimage
a journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
Polytheism
belief in or worship of more than one god
Sect
a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Solstice
time when the Sun is farthest from the equator
Universalizing religion
a religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
Chapter-7
Ethnicity
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the environment
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcible removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Multi-ethnic state
State that contains more than one ethnicity
Multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
Nation-state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences product an inherent superiority of a particular race
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
Self-determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
Chapter-8
Political Geography
balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
city-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
colonialism
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
colony
a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
compact state
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
elongated state
a state with a long, narrow shape
federal state
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
fragmented state
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
frontier
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
gerrymandering
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
landlocked state
a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
microstate
a state that encompasses a very small land area
perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one
prorupted state
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
state
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
unitary state
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Chapter-9
Development
Developing Country
Term that analysts use instead of the term "less
developed country"
Economic Development
Process of improving economic/material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of men and women to participate in economic and political decision making
Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Gross Domestic Product
Value of the total number of goods and services produced in a country in a given period of time (normally one year). Also known as GNI (Gross National Income)
Gross National Product
Like "gross domestic product," only the incomes that people earn abroad are also considered
Human Development Index (HDI)
Created by the United Nations to recognize a country's level of development as function of three factors: economic, social, and demographic factors
Less Developed Country (LDC)
Country in an earlier stage of development. Several analysts prefer the term "developing country"
Literacy Rate
Percentage of a country's people who can read and write
More Developed Country (MDC)
Also known as a relatively developed country or a developed country, country that has progressed further along the development continuum
Neo-colonialism
Country that displays economic dependence on another country; a country that displays so much economic independence on another country, that it seems to be a colony of the independent country
Primary Sector
Where workers extract materials from Earth through agriculture, and sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry; the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Productivity
Value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
What a state's dollar can actually buy compared to another state's dollar; what a country is able to buy
Quarternary Sector
Sector that includes jobs that focus on business services, such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling
Rostow's "Modernization Model"
Model created by W.W. Rostow in the 1950's that gives an idea of where a country is in their stage of development. There are five stages in this model, including: 1. "The traditional society," 2. "The preconditions for takeoff," 3. "The takeoff," 4. "The drive to maturity," 5. "The age of mass consumption"
Secondary Sector
Portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing the process, transformation, and assembly of raw materials into useful products
Structural Adjustment Programs
Economic policies that encourage international trade
Tertiary Sector
Portion of the economy concerned with the transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Value Added
Gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy
Chapter-10
Agriculture
Agribusiness
system of commercial farming found in the United States and other relatively developed countries
Boserup Hypothesis
based on the observation that explains how population increase necessitates increased inputs of labor and technology to compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming
Carl Sauer
first to observe vegetable planting
Commercial Agriculture
found in more developed countries; production of food primarily for sale off the farm
Crop Rotation
practice of rotating the use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
Desertification
process in semiarid regions where human actions are causing land to deteriorate to a desert-like condition
Domestication
process of making something commercialized for larger production
Fallow
when farmers grow crops on a clear field for only a few years until the soil nutrients are depleted. The farmers then leave the soil for a few year so the nutrients in the soil can be restored; uncropped land
Green Revolution
invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s
Horticulture
growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
term applied to subsistence agriculture that means that farmers must work more intensively to subsist on a parcel of land
Luxury Crops
"hard to get" crops; delicacies; crops that you would not normally see
Market Gardening (Truck Farming)
commercial gardening and fruit farming named because "truck" means bartering
Mediterranean Agriculture
form agriculture that takes place along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. The sea winds provide moisture for the crops and moderate winter temperatures, and this form of agriculture takes place in hilly, mountainous regions. The two primary cash crops in this form of agriculture are olives and grapes
Milkshed
ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
Paddy
inaccurate name given by Europeans and North Americans to the flooded field in which wet rice is planted; Malay word for wet rice
Pastoral Nomadism
form of agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Plantation
large farm that specializes in one or two crops
Ranching
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
Ridge Tillage
system of planting crops on ridge tops to reduce farm production costs; promotes soil conservation
Seed Agriculture
reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
Shifting Cultivation
people shift actively from one field to another
Slash-and-Burn (Swidden)
farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris. Swidden is the cleared area that is known by a variety of names in different regions (swidden is the name in one specific region)
Subsistence Agriculture
found in LDCs. Production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family
Sustainable Agriculture
agricultural practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality
Thomas Malthus
first one to observe that rapidly increasing population will cause overpopulation and not enough resources for all of the people
Transhumance
seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Truck farms
horticultural or "market gardening" farms
Vegetative Planting
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems
von Thunen's Model of Agriculture
model that shows that the uses to which panels were put was a function of the differing "rent" values placed on seemingly identical lands
Chapter-11
Industry
Agglomeration
Phenomenon of economic activity congregating in or close to a single location, rather than being spread out uniformly across space
Assembly line
Arrangement of tools, machines, and workers in which a product is assembled by having each perform a specific, successive operation on an incomplete unit as it passes by in a series of stages organized in a direct line
Break-of-bulk
Point of location where transfer among transportation modes is possible
Bulk-gaining industry
Industry that makes something that gain volume or weight during production
Bulk-reducing industry
Economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs
Capital
Wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, or corporation
Cottage industry
Home-based manufacturing. An example of this is textile manufacturing
Export processing zone
Industrial parks for foreign companies to conduct export-oriented manufacturing
Footloose industry
Industry that locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital
"Fordism" (post-Fordism)
Approach that explains how many industries are attracted to locations with relatively skilled labor to introduce new rules. Traditionally, in large factories, each worker was assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly. Relatively skilled workers are needed to master the wider variety of assignments given to them, which are more flexible rules under the _________ approach.
Industrial Revolution
Revolution that transformed how goods are produced for a society and the way people obtain food, clothing, and shelter
Infrastructure
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
Labor-intensive
Type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense
Least-cost theory
States that optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization
Site characteristics
Characteristics that result from the unique characteristics of a location, such as land, labor, and capital
Situation characteristics
Characteristics that involve transporting materials to and from a factory
Weber, Alfred (Alfred Weber)
Creator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization
right-to-work state
State that has prevented a union or company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
trading bloc
Type of "industrial competition" in which the countries within a group cooperate through trade, and these groups compete against the other two (there are three total)
new international division of labor
Selective transfer of skilled jobs in MDCs to LDCs that still allow skilled jobs to exist in MDCs
basic industry
Industry producing goods or services for sale to other regions
economies of scale
Lower production costs as a result of larger volume of production
nonbasic industry
Industry producing goods or services for sale within the local region
primary industry/activity
Economic activity that directly extracts or harvests resources from the Earth
secondary industry/activity
Economic activity that transforms raw materials into usable products, adding value in the process
raw material oriented
Tendency for an industry to locate near the source of raw materials in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when raw materials lose weight in the production process
tertiary industry/activity
Economic activity that links the primary and secondary sectors to the consumers and other businesses either by selling goods directly or by performing services utilizing those goods
Chapter-12
Services
Basic industries
industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
central business district (CBD)
the area of the cty where retail and office activities are clustered
central place
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
city-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
consumer services
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
economic base
a community's collection of basic industries
enclosure movement
the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century
gravity model
a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach this service
market area (hinterland)
the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
personal services
services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
producer services
services that primarily help people conduct business
public services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range (of a service)
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
retail services
services that provide goods for sale to consumers
service
any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
settlement
a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
threshold
the minimum number of people needed to support the service
transportation and information services
services that diffuse and distribute other services
Chapter-13
Urban Patterns
Annexation
process of legally adding land area to a city
Concentric zone model
model created by EW Burgess in 1923, which explains that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings on a tree
Density gradient
density change in an urban area
Edge city
city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services
Filtering
process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people
Gentrification
process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
Greenbelts
rings of open space. New housing is built in the older suburbs within the rings and planned extensions, small towns, and new towns are built beyond the rings
Megalopolis
Greek word for "great city." Region described as an MSA that may overlap and cause several large metropolitan areas to come so close together that they form one continuous urban complex
MSA (metropolitan statistical area)
area studied using a method created by the US Bureau of the Census that measures the functional area of a city
MSA (micropolitan statistical area)
smaller urban areas that the census has designated to include in part of their measure
Multiple nuclei model
model created by CD Harris and EL Ullman in 1945, which explains that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve
Peripheral model
model created by Chauncey Harris, which describes how an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
Public housing
housing provided to low-income households, who pay 30% of their income as rent for the housing
Redlining
drawing of lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will refuse to loan money
Renovated housing
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses
Sector model
theory developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that a city develops in a series of sectors rather than rings
Smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Sprawl
what US suburbs are characterized by; the progressive spread of development over the landscape
Squatter settlement
settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of a housing shortage
Underclass
what inner-city residents are frequently referred to because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems
Urban renewal
something under which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities
Zone in transition
name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing
Zoning ordinances
rules developed in Europe and North America in the 20th century that encouraged spatial separation. They also prevented mixing of land uses within the same district
Galactic city
mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
Scattered site
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project
Chapter-14
Resource Issues
Acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface
Acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
Animate power
Power supplied by people or animals
Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
Biodiversity
The number of species within a specific habitat
Biomass fuel
fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
Conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
Ferrous
Metals including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Fossil fuel
Energry source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
Geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
Greenhouse effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Hydroelectric power
Power generated from moving water
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English
Inanimate power
Power supplied by machines
Nonferrous
metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel
Nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Ozone
gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface
Passive solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices
Photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
Photovoltaic cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity
Pollution
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate
Potential reserve
The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible
Proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Radioactive waste
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people and must therefore be safely stored for thousands of years
Renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Sanitary landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
Sustainable development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
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