•Personality Perspectives/ Theories:
◦Psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic perspective - unconscious conflicts-A link between unconscious conflicts and conscious anxiety disorder symptoms have been shown, lending empirical support to psychoanalysis
◦Freud's iceberg theory-writing style of American writer Ernest Hemingway. As a young journalist, Hemingway had to focus his newspaper reports on immediate events, with very little context or interpretation
◦Id-unorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human's basic, instinctual drives, ego-acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id's drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bring grief. At the same time, Freud concedes that as the ego "attempts to mediate between id and reality, it is often obliged to cloak the Unconscious commands of the id with its own Preconscious rationalizations, to conceal the id's conflicts with reality, superego-] reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly taught by parents applying their guidance and influence
◦Freud's psychosexual stages-In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages. Each stage - the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital - is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder
◦Defense mechanisms-A defense mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies. Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct
◦Neo-Freudians: Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson-psychiatrists and psychologists were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Sigmund Freud, but who extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions. They have been defined as 'American writers who attempted to restate Freudian theory in sociological terms and to eliminate its connections with biology'
◦Jung - collective unconscious and archetypes -Collective unconscious, a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts and by archetypes: universal symbols such as the Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, Water, the Tree of Life, and many more
◦Adler - inferiority complex-lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty, and feelings of not measuring up to standards. It is often subconscious, and is thought to drive afflicted individuals to overcompensate, resulting either in spectacular achievement or extreme asocial behavior◦Horney - womb envy-unexpressed anxiety that some men feel in natural envy of the biological functions of females (pregnancy, parturition, breast feeding) — emotions which impel their social subordination of women, and to drive themselves to succeed in perpetuating their names via material legacies
◦Evaluations and criticisms of the psychodynamic perspective-unscientific in its analysis of human behavior
◦Abraham Maslow-Abraham Harold Maslow was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization. Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis University, Brooklyn College, New School for Social Research and Columbia University. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms."
◦Carl Rogers-Carl Ransom Rogers was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956
◦Self-concept-collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance gender roles and sexuality, and racial identity
◦Ideal self-idealized version of yourself created out of what you have learned from your life experiences, the demands of society, and what you admire in your role models
◦Unconditional positive regard-Unconditional positive regard, a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist, Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy
◦Self-actualization-Expressing one's creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to society are examples of self-actualization
◦Evaluations of the humanistic perspective-
As with any viewpoint, humanistic psychology has its critics. One major criticism of humanistic psychology is that its concepts are too vague. Critics argue that subjective ideas such as authentic and real experiences are difficult to objectify; an experience that is real for one individual may not be real for another person. For this reason, critics believe that conclusions drawn from subjective experiences are almost impossible to verify, making research in humanistic psychology unreliable. In addition, critics claim that humanistic psychology is not a true science because it involves too much common sense and not enough objectivity.
•Social Cognitive Perspective
◦Bandura and reciprocal determinism-theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
◦Personal control-Emotional needs and issues around self-identity and threats to basic security in everyday life. The self as executive center and social agent
◦Julian Rotter - external locus of control vs. internal locus of control-internal (the person believes they can control their life) or external (meaning they believe their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence, or by chance or fate)
◦Martin Seligman and positive psychology-Martin E. P. "Marty" Seligman is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books. Since the late 90's, Seligman has been an avid promoter within the scientific community for the field of positive psychology. His theory of learned helplessness is popular among scientific and clinical psychologists.
◦Learned helplessness-behavior in which an organism forced to endure aversive, painful or otherwise unpleasant stimuli, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are escapable
◦Optimism-hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something vs. Pessimism-state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries
◦Evaluations of the social cognitive perspective-Because social cognitive theory is so broad, it has been criticized for lacking any one unifying principle or structure. People are viewed as so dynamic that it is difficult to implement the theory in its entirety. Instead, implementation is likely to focus on one or two concepts, such as self-efficacy
◦Traits-a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
◦Hans Eysenck and factor analysis
◦Allport-Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist. Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. He contributed to the formation of Values Scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often went too deep, and a behavioral approach, which he thought often did not go deep enough. He emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history, for understanding the personality.
◦Cattell and his self-report inventory-questionnaire developed by Raymond Cattell to assess individuals based on his trait theory of personality. This test is used to generate personality profile of the individual and is often used to evaluate employees and to help people select a career
◦The Big Five (five-factor model) O.C.E.A.N.-In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality, the five-factor model (FFM) The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE. Beneath each global factor, a cluster of correlated and more specific primary factors are found; for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions
◦Evaluations of the Trait theories
Did not recognize the specific effects of different environmental situations
Traits are seen as poor predictors of behavior.
Although people have certain core tendencies, or are disposed to act in certain ways, these behaviors are not general but specific to certain situations
Therefore interactionist approaches would be more efficient in predicting behavior
◦Behavior genetics-An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are a standard part of qualitative research. They are also used in journalism and media reporting and in various employment-related contexts
◦Interviews-An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are a standard part of qualitative research. They are also used in journalism and media reporting and in various employment-related contexts
◦Projective Tests -In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test. This is sometimes contrasted with a so-called "objective test" or "self-report test" in which responses are analyzed according to a presumed universal standard, and are limited to the content of the test. The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness
◾Rorschach Inkblot-The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach
◾TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)-The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective psychological test. Proponents of this technique assert that a person's responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people. Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests
◾Myers-Briggs (MBTI)-The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The questionnaire was created by Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers based on an extrapolation from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung's 1921 book Psychological Types. Jung had theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which humans experience the world - sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking - and that one of these four functions is dominant most of the time
◾MMPI-The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is the most widely used and researched standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology. Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions; screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure
◾NEO-PI- psychological personality inventory, first published in 1990 as a revised version of inventories dating to 1978. The NEO PI-R consists of 240 questions intended to measure the Big Five personality traits: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience