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why are cells so small

messages from the nucleous must be able to reach all parts of the cell
if the cell was too big, diffusion would happen too slowly
a bigger call needs more nutrients but has relatively less surface area to take in nurtients

surface area vs volume

surface area- 1w6
volume- 1wh

cell cycle

the life of a cell from the end of one cell division to the end of the next cell division

Go phase

cells dont divide again



G1 phase

gap one or growth one- cells grow

s phase

synthesis- replicating the organnelles for the daughter cells to have


gap two or growth two


condensed form - X - connected by a centromere - they are identical chromosomes


uncondensed form- (crazy strands)

stages of mitosis



chromosones codense from chromotin to chromotids
nuclear envelope starts to disspear
centorioles start going to the ends of the cell and spindle fibers form


chrmosones line up in the middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centrimere


sister chromotids are pulled apart
spindle fibers pull the chromotids to opposite ends of cell
animal cells have cleavage furrow
plant cellls begin to form a cell plate


nuclear envelope built from ER around each set of chromosones nucleus reforms
chrmosones become chromatin


final division of cytoplasm so there is two separate cells
animals-cell membrane pnches off
plants- cell plate forms new cell membrane dividing the daughter cells


proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotes

internal regulations

regulate process so there is no mistakes
only lets the cycle begin when other cycles are done

external regulations

tells it to divide or stop divding chemical
messages from another nucleus


too many cells dividing and building up and cells dont respond to cell cycle regulators


cells growing unregulated

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