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erosion & deposition.

outwash plain

melt water at end of glacier sorts and carries smaller sediment from glacier, makes layers.

kettle lakes

chunks of ice break off as glacier retreats, outwash sediment then builds up around. ice melts then makes lake.


large boulder different than bedrock


unsorted, sub rounded material dropped by a glacier when glacier melts.


mounded moraine (glacial till) in shape of upside down spoon.
shows direction of movement, steeper slope on side glacier came from.

deposition by mass movement

sediment at bottom of cliff/slope is poorly sorted

deposition by wind

are layered and cross bedded, sand grains are highly sorted, rounded, frosted and pitted. wind direction controls shape of sand dunes.

shoreline deposition

spit deposits in bays used to tell direction of longshore current. break walls and jetties used to block current and cause deposition.


involves transport. agents are wind, water, glaciers, and mass movement.


most driving force behind all agents of erosion

stream erosion

most responsible for shaping land.

high velocity

= more erosion


where all the lands area water drains into a stream


small stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river


elevated land that divides one watershed or drainage basin from another


the region where water first accumulates to supply a stream


the triangular deposit that forms where a stream enters into a large body of water

flood plain

flat area that extends out from a streams bank and is covered by excess water during times of flooding

cut bank

outside stream or river where erosion occurs and higher velocity. deep

point bar

inside stream or river where deposition occurs and lower velocity. shallow

oxbow lake

part of lake that eventually dries up


forming sediment mounds

potential energy

stored energy (available to do work)

kinetic energy

energy in motion (doing work)


have highest potential energy at highest elevation

highest kinetic energy

with highest velocity, stream carrying capacity ( stream load )

carry capacity

total amount of sediment a stream carries

bed load

consists of sand, pebbles and cobbles


particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a streams moving water

dissolved load

material is carried by solution

stream deposition

process by which sediments are released, dropped or settled from an erosional system. caused by loss of kinetic energy (velocity) in agent of erosion

wind erosion

dominates on arid (dry) regions, best sorter grains become frosted and pitted.

glacial erosion

occurs where it is cold (high elevation, high latitude)

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