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CBC: Normal Hematology Values and Meanings of Abnormality for Cats and Dogs

Trying to learn the normal laboratory hematology blood counts/what abnormalities mean in cats and dogs...
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What is CBC?
Stands for complete blood count; it is the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platlets in one cubic millimeter of blood
What is plasma?
The liquid portion of the blood. It may be either blood serum or plasma.
Difference between serum and plasma?
The liquid portion of blood is called "serum" if it contains clotting factors like fibrinogen and it is "plasma" if it does not contain clotting factors and is unable to clot.
RBCs contain ______ which carries oxygen
Hemoglobin
RBCs are formed in the ______ _______
bone marrow
Life span of an RBC?
120 days (4 months)
How does the body measure the number of RBCs present?
The body measures their numbers simply by evaluating the quantity of oxygen being supplied to its tissues. If not enough oxygen is available, then the body sees that as a need for more working RBC's.
What happens if more RBCs are needed quickly?
If more RBC's are needed quickly, then more immature cells (called reticulocytes) are released into the circulation from the bone marrow.
_____: Immature RBCs released by the bone marrow into the body
Reticulocytes
Average RBC in a feline?
6.1X 11.9 X10^6/uL
Average RBC in a canine?
5.6-8.9X10^6/uL
The quickest and easiest way to determine RBC count is called _________.
Hematocrit
Hematocrit is also referred to as _____
Packed cell volume (PCV)
How is PCV measured?
the percentage of the cellular portion relative to the total amount of blood in the tube.. RBCs/Total blood volume
Average hematocrit in a canine?
40-59
Average hematocrit in a feline?
29-50
Low PCV is called _____
anemia
What causes anemia? Symptoms?
Body not getting enough oxygen due to lowerd number of RBCs. In severe anemia, the animal would probably have pale membranes in its mouth and seem weak and tired..
Two types of anemia ___ and ____
Regenerative and nonregenerative
Nonregenerative anemia?
No new reticulocytes being released in response to low oxygen levels. Very serious!
This number indicates two high PCV in cats or dogs...
55
A high PCV might indicate what conditions?
Dehydration, the animal recently travelled to an area of high altitude (less oxygen at higher altitudes, so more RBCs produced in response because body detects there is not enough oxygen), diseases of the lungs, and anything else that might cause the body to detect it is not getting enough oxygen...
Normal amount of hemoglobin in a cat?
9-15.6g/dL
Normal hemoglobin in a dog?
14-20g/dL
What causes elevated WBC?
The body is fighting a severe infection or stressed by metabolic toxins
When will WBC be lower than normal?
If an animal has been weakened from a prolonged, debilitating disease and in some viral infections.
WBCs are divided into two groups depending on how they absorb stains: ___ (that absorb the stain) and the ___ ( that do not absorb the stain).
Granulocyte/ agranulocyte
Granulocytes include the _____
Macrophages: neutrophils and eosinophils, and the basophils (note: monocytes are also macrophages, but they are NOT granulocytes)
Agranulocytes include the ____
lymphocytes and monocytes (macrophages)
Average WBC in cat?
4,900-20,000/uL
Average WBC in a dog?
6,000-17,000/uL
Neutrophils are formed in the ____
bone marrow
Mature neutrophils vs. nonmature neutrophils
segs (mature--multisegmented, multilobed nucleus) vs. nonseg (immature--nonsegmented, singlelobed nucleus)
How do neutrophils function?
actually engulfing disease-causing bacteria and other small particles.
Normal range for mature neutrophils?
3000 and 12,000/uL
Normal range for neutrophil bands?
100-300/uL
What does it mean when total neutrophil numbers are increased?
it is usually a sign of a bacterial infection or some form of extreme stress.
What does it mean when neutrophils are decreased?
Sign of viral infection
Normal range for eosinophils?
100-1200/uL
Where are eosiniophils and basophils created?
The bone marrow
How do eosiniphils act?
Engulf foreign particles
When do eosinophils increase?
when the animal is suffering from an infection with parasites, or has allergies.
When do eosinophil numbers decrease?
In conditions that cause extreme or prolonged stress to the dog or cat,
Avg. basophil number/function
Very rare, common to be zero. Function is unknown!
Avg. number of lymphocytes in the dog?
530-4800/uL
Avg. number of lymphocytes in the cat?
1500-7000/uL
Where are lymphocytes formed and released from?
They are formed and released from lymphoid tissue such as lymph nodes, spleen, etc.
2 types of lymphocytes?
B cells and T cells
How do B cells function?
The B cells produce antibodies, which are protein molecules that attach to and thereby destroy invading organisms or other foreign materials and particles.
How do T cells function?
The T cells activate and help other cells destroy viruses and other foreign material.
When lymphocytes numbers decrease it is referred to as a _____
lymphopenia--- frequently noted in the initial stages of infections
2 examples of when lymphopenia occurs?
Beginning stages of parvovirus; Also following use of corticosteroids like prednisone
When do lymphocyte numbers increase?
Prolonged illnesses; when bacterial or viral infections have gone on for a long time or in certain autoimmune diseases.
Specific example of disease that causes lymphocyte increase?
Leukemia, cancer of the blood cells
Where are monocytes developed?
Develop and are stored in the spleen and bone marrow
Monocyte numbers in a dog?
100-1800
Monocyte numbers in a cat?
0-850
Functions of monocytes?
Have the ability to eat or engulf foreign material, such as infectious organisms. Secrete various protein molecules that help in the clean up of inflamed and irritated tissue.
What alters the number of monocytes
Usually don't change unless leukemia is present!
How do platlets function?
They serve a vital function in the formation of clots.
What happens if platlet numbers are decreased?
t may mean that the body has either used up a large quantity of the available cells in clot formation, or that their number may be low and the animal is at great risk, if bleeding should commence in the future.