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30 terms

Chapter 15: Secession and the Civil War

STUDY
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Name the first state to secede in 1860
South Carolina
Describe how the various groups of southerners felt about secession
- South Carolinians justified seceding by charging that a "sectional party" had elected a president "whose opinions & purposes are hostile to slavery"
- other states in the Cotton Kingdom had similar outrage over Lincoln's election but less certainty about how to respond
- cooperationists believed slave states should secede as a unit
- others advocated immediate secession by each state individually
Explain the geographic & philosophic tenets of the southern secessionist movements
- GA, LA, TX - cooperationists wanted to delay seceding in hopes of extorting major concessions from the North
- upper South - moderate Unionist element that had ties to the northern economy were more willing to seek a sectional compromise
- lower South - unwilling to compromise
Characterize in political terms the Confederate government leaders
- relatively moderate leaders
Describe the differences in the Confederate Constitution from the US Constitution
the central government was denied the authority to:
- impose protective tariffs
- subsidize internal improvements
- interfere w/ slavery in the states and was required to pass laws protecting slavery in the territories
Explain the parts & results of the Crittenden Compromise of 1861
Parts:
- advocated extending Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific to guarantee the protection of slavery in the SW territories & in territories south of line that might be acquired
- federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves
- constitutional amendment forever prohibiting the federal government from abolishing/regulating slavery
Results:
- Lincoln and Congress rejected compromise
- the war began
Discuss how the Civil War began militarily
- Confederate Army attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor
- after 2 days the Union forces surrendered
Describe the reaction of the Upper South to the coming of the Civil War
- VA, AR, TN, NC reversed decision of rejecting secession & joined the Confederacy - Lincoln's call for support to "coerce" other southern states made them choose sides
Describe the reaction of the North to the coming of the Civil War
- the firing on Ft Sumter evoked strong feelings of patriotism, unity & dedication to the Union
Explain the reaction of the Border States to the coming of the Civil War
- MD, DE, KY & MO proclaimed neutrality
List the major northern advantages in the Civil War
- large population, industrial capacity & railroad mileage
List the major southern advantages in the Civil War
- armies faced an easier task - only had to defend its own territory
- faced less serious supply problems
- greater capacity to choose time & place of combat
- on familiar terrain
- sympathetic civilian population
Explain the major portions of Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan
- the North would squeeze the South into submission by blocking the southern coasts, seizing control of the Mississippi River cutting off supplies of food & essentials
Describe how the North & South acquired manpower for their armies
- initially more volunteers than could be armed & clothed
- later a draft was required to recruit men
List the major southern weaknesses in the Civil War
- southern economy was much less adaptable
- depended on outside world for much of their manufactured goods
- had to rely on government sponsored cash programs
- agriculture could not support troops/shortage of food
- inadequate internal transportation system
- Confederate soldiers were increasingly undernourished
- lacked financing
Compare Lincoln & Davis as leaders both militarily & politically
Lincoln:
- bold in assuming new executive powers; interfered w/ civil liberties
- "necessity" justified a flexible interpretation of his war powers
- administration showed restraint & tolerated political dissent
- able party leader; accommodating disagreement & encouraging unity & dedication to the cause
- political & public support
Davis:
- less effective war leader; focused all attention on war, passed up able generals for incompetent personal favorite
- left policy making to Confederate Congress
- ignored problems on the home front & deteriorating economy
- lost political & popular support
- unorganized party leader & had no help mobilizing public support
Name Jefferson Davis' major southern opponents
- state governors
- confederate Congress members
Name Winfield Scott's successor as Commanding General of the US Army
- George McClellan
Describe the western campaigns in 1862
- Grant captured forts Henry & Donelson (U)
- Battle of Shiloh - Buell (U), Johnston (C) & Beauregard (C)
- Farragut & Union Navy captured the port of New Orleans, then Vicksburg - (U)
Union dominance
Describe the eastern campaigns in 1862
- McClellan took Yorktown (U)
- Jackson Valley - Union defeated along Shenandoah Valley (C)
- Lee defeated McClellan at Seven Days' Battle (C)
- Jackson defeated Pope & McClellan moving on Richmond (C)
- Lee won near Bull Run (C)
- Pope retreats to defend Washington
- Lee vs McClellan at Antietam, Lee retreats (U)
- Lee defeats Ambrose Burnside at Fredericksburg (C)
Confederate dominance
Discuss the southern diplomatic strategy in 1861 & 1862
- use the South's cotton to lure England & France to intervene on Confederate side
- gain "belligerent" status to keep American ships of the sea
- failed to gain full recognition of the Confederacy from either England or France
Explain why Lincoln was hesitant to abolish slavery
- fear of alienating Unionist elements in border slave states
- preferred a gradual, compensated form of emancipation
- aware of strong racial prejudice of most whites in both the North & the South
- pessimistic about equality for blacks in the US
Discuss the results of the Emancipation Proclamation
- gave Confederate states 100 days to give up the struggle w/o losing their slaves
- all slaves in areas under Confederate control were freed
- authorized the enlistment of freed slaves in the Union Army
- did not immediately free a single slave
- did commit the Union to the abolition of slavery as a war aim
- accelerated the breakdown of slavery as a labor system
Name the turning point of the Civil War in the west in 1863
- Union victory at Vicksburg
Name the turning point of the Civil War in the east in 1863
- Union victory at Gettysburg
Name the commander of the Union Army in the March to the Sea
- William T. Sherman
Name the candidates & results of the presidential election of 1864
- Abraham Lincoln (Rep) *WINNER*
- General McClellan (Dem)
Name the place where General Robert E. Lee surrendered in 1865
- Appomattox Courthouse, VA
Explain the constitutional issues solved by the Civil War
- federal government was supreme over states & had a broad grant of constitutional authority to act on matters affecting "the general welfare"
- broadened definition of federal powers major impact on realm of economic policy
- state sovereignty & strict construction were over, US was a true nation-state with a central government
- states had primary responsibility for most functions of government but could no longer secede or nullify federal law
Explain why the North won the Civil War
- unions ability to organize, mobilize and modernize
- a shift in the relationship between federal government & private enterprise
- took limited government & changed it into an activist state that promoted & subsidized the efforts of the economically ambitious & industrious