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29 terms

digestive

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macromolecules
large molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, or lipids
monomers
small units of macromolecules present after digestion
proteins
digested into amino acids
nucleic acids
digested into nucleotides
lipids
digested into fatty acids and glycerol
carbohydrates
digested into monosaccharides
water, minerals (Ca, Na, K, etc.), vitamins
nutrients that do not need digestion
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
nutrients that do need digestion
mechanical (or physical) and chemical
two types of digestion
chemical digestion
type of digestion that uses enzymes to break bonds in food
mechanical (or physical) digestion
type of digestion that breaks or grinds the food
amylase
enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the mouth
pharynx
serves as a passageway for both food and air
esophagus
brings food by peristalsis to the stomach
peristalsis
waves of contraction in the digestive system that help to move food along
pepsin
enzyme in the stomach that digests proteins
hydrochloric acid
acid found in the stomach
small intestine
where food is absorbed into the blood
villi
structures that increases surface area inside the small intestine
small intestine
contains enzymes from the pancreas that digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
large intestine
where water is reabsorbed into the blood from the digestive system
E. coli
bacteria found in the large intestine
pancreas
makes enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids and then sends those enzymes to the small intestine
pancreas
makes bicarbonate to neutralize acids in the small intestine
liver
makes bile
gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
bile
emulsifies fats
emulsify
break fats into smaller droplets
lipase
enzyme that breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol