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large molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, or lipids


small units of macromolecules present after digestion


digested into amino acids

nucleic acids

digested into nucleotides


digested into fatty acids and glycerol


digested into monosaccharides

water, minerals (Ca, Na, K, etc.), vitamins

nutrients that do not need digestion

proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids

nutrients that do need digestion

mechanical (or physical) and chemical

two types of digestion

chemical digestion

type of digestion that uses enzymes to break bonds in food

mechanical (or physical) digestion

type of digestion that breaks or grinds the food


enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the mouth


serves as a passageway for both food and air


brings food by peristalsis to the stomach


waves of contraction in the digestive system that help to move food along


enzyme in the stomach that digests proteins

hydrochloric acid

acid found in the stomach

small intestine

where food is absorbed into the blood


structures that increases surface area inside the small intestine

small intestine

contains enzymes from the pancreas that digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids

large intestine

where water is reabsorbed into the blood from the digestive system

E. coli

bacteria found in the large intestine


makes enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids and then sends those enzymes to the small intestine


makes bicarbonate to neutralize acids in the small intestine


makes bile


stores and concentrates bile


emulsifies fats


break fats into smaller droplets


enzyme that breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol

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