Peace Treaties of World War One
Terms in this set (17)
Peace Treaties in 1919-1920 (We'll go deeper into this later!)
The Treaty of Versailles against Germany (1919)
Treaty of St Germain against Austria (1919)
Treaty of Neuilly against Bulgaria (1919)
Treaty of Trianon against Hungary (1920)
Treaty of Serves against Turkey (1920)
All the peace treaties were created and settled by USA, France, & Britain. Germany & Russia weren't invited. Italy was present, but wasn't included in the important decisions.
David Lloyd George's Agenda
The Prime Minister of Great Britain at the time.
- He was in two minds: he wanted to punish Germany for the war, but still wanted to keep them healthy.
- He was under pressure as he promised his public to destroy Germany (and, hence, won the elections).
- But he knew that Germany was essential to Britain because of Trade and a buffer against Communism.
- He wanted Germany to lose their Navy and Colonies for their own sovereignty in those fields.
Woodrow Wilson's Agenda
The President of USA at the time.
- He didn't have much of public support as USA were isolationists, and their public didn't like USA interfering with European Affairs.
- He was very clear and certain that he didn't want to punish Germany to such an extent that they would want revenge.
- He desired to base his treaty on his 14 points.
- He wanted to setup a Democratic Government in Germany.
Georges Clemencau's Agenda
He was the Prime Minister of France at the time.
- Security (From Germany due to their history of wars)
- Revenge (for humiliation of loss in the Franco- Prussian War)
- Reparations (Money).
- He was very strong on crippling Germany to an extent where they wouldn't be able to fight another war. The reparations he demanded would have put German economy in ruins.
- Germany to be split up, so it could never be a threat to France
- Alsace Lorrain
- The Rhineland
The Outcome of T.O.V. (How did the Big Three feel?)
The Big 3 (Clemencau, Lloyd George, Wilson) didn't feel satisfied as each of their points were countered by the other 2 members. However, they reached an agreement but failed to base the treaty completely on any one of their ideas.
Arguments for T.O.V.
- Alsace-Lorraine' people wanted to be with France, due to mistreating of people.
- Poland was strengthened (given land & sea access).
- Belgium was a neutral dragged into war, so were given land.
- Treaty set by Germany against Russia was much harsher (the Treaty of Brest Litovsk)
- Wilson had rescued the treaty from going out of hand through Clemencau.
Arguments against T.O.V.
- Treaty was too harsh.
- Germany alone took the War Guilt.
- Germany had to pay £6.6 Billion as reparations; this left their economy in very poor shape.
- The military terms dictated were too harsh; they were open to an invasion due to lack of defence.
- Germany were't called to discuss, the terms were dictated to them.
- Germany was looking too weak to recover; the T.O.V. created a lot of Social and Humanitarian Problems.
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Created at the Paris Peace Conference on 28th June, 1919.
USA (Wilson), Great Britain (Lloyd George) & France (Clemencau) were the main decision making body.
Italy (Orlando) was invited, but they were interested only in the colonies of Germany.
Russia & Germany were not invited.
Wilson's 14 Points
1. No Secret Treaty
2. Free access to the seas in peacetime or wartime
3. Free Trade between countries
4. All countries to disarm
5. Self-Determination of Colonies (Colonies to decide their own future)
6. German troops to leave Russia
7. Independence for Belgium
8. France to win Alsace-Lorraine
9. Adjust frontier between Austria & Italy
10. Self-Determination of Eastern Europe
11. Serbia to gain sea access
12. Self-Determination for people under the Turkish Empire
13. Poland to become independent with sea access
14. League of Nations to be setup
Terms of The Treaty of Versailles
They were to accept the war guilt- "Clause 231"
German conscription was banned, they were not allowed submarines, or airplanes. They were only allowed 6 battleships, and an army of 100,000 men.
The reparations were 6.6 billion pounds.
The Rhineland was to become a DMZ, and Alsace- Lorraine was to be given to France. The Saar coalfields were given to France for 15 years, and Danzig was made a free city.
The League of Nations would be set up
Treaty of St Germain (1919)
- To Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
Treaty of Neuilly (1919)
- It lost its land Greece, Romania & Yugoslavia.
Treaty of Trianon (1920)
- Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia received these lands
Treaty of Serves (1920)
- The Turkish Empire:
- They lost Smyrna to Greece
- They lost Syria as a mandate under French control
After the Treaties being laid down, the Allies believed that Czechoslovakia was a key country and would play an important role in the security of Europe in the future.
To make sure of this to happen: Allies built Czechoslovakia from Industrial lands from former German/Austrian Empires.
Poland were recently a weak state, being threatened by Russia, Germany & Austria. However, after this war, the Allies began to give Poland more power by giving more land and access to the sea.
This was mainly in an effort to make Poland Anti-Communist, and use them as a buffer.
The state of Yugoslavia was very complicated. It included merged parts of Serbia, parts of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.
This state helped to promote Self-Determination as the Slavs in this region wanted an independent state.
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