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advisory system

a judicial system in which opposing lawyer president their strongest case

civil law

on relating to disputes among two or more individuals or between individuals and the government


a set of voluntary promises enforced by the law, between two or more parties


the loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process

double jeopardy

retrial of a person who was acquitted in a previous trial for the same crime

establishment clause

the First Amendment guarantee the "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"

exclusionary rule

a law stating the any illegal obtained evidence cannot be used in a federal court


a major crime

illegal alien

a person without legal permission to be in a country


a process that extended to protections of the Bill of Rights against against the actions of state and local governments


a formal charge by a grand jury

jus sanguinis

latin phrase meaning "law of blood" the principle of grants citizenship on the citizenship of one's parents

jus soli

latin phrase meaning law of the soli" the principle that grants citizenship to nearly all people born in a country


false written or published statements intended to damage a person's reputation


i minor crime that is usually punished by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year

non-resident alien

a person form a foreign country who expects to stay in the United States for a short specified period of time


person who brings chargers in court

plea bargain

the process in which a defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime than the one with which the defendant was originally charged

prior restraints

government censorship of information before it is published or broadcasted

pure speech

the verbal expression of thought and opinion before an audience that has chosen to listen

rational basis test

used by a Court to determine whether a state law is reasonably related to an acceptable goal of the government

resident alien

a person from a foreign nation who has established permanent residence in the United States

seditious speech

speech urging residence to lawful authority or advocating the overthrow of the government


false speech intended to damage a person's reputation

statutory law

a law that is written down so the every one might know and understand

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