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People who were born in Spain, on the top of the colonial society


Spanish people born in the colonies who were right underneath the peninsulares


People of mixed European and Indian ancestry

Tourssaint L'Ouverture

Led enslaved Africans in a revolt against the French. However, he was captured and imprisoned.

Simón Bolívar

Wealthy Venezuelan creole who won Venezuela's independence

José de San Martín

Argentinian revolutionary who freed Chile from Spanish control. He later helped liberate Peru.

Miguel Hidalgo

A priest who issued the Cry of Dolores, a call for rebellion against the Spanish.

José María Morelos

After Hidalgo was defeated, the rebel armies rallied around this person.

Agustín de Iturbide

Creole officer who declared Mexico's independence

Dom Pedro

Son of King John who made Brazil independent of Portugal.

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