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NFSC100 Exam 3

12 Benefits of Exercise

1. Improved cario function
2. Lower blood pressure
3. High HDL (good) cholesterol, lower LDL (bad cholesterol, lower triglycerides in blood
4. Improve energy balance by increasing energy use
5. Reduce risk of colon and breast cancer
6. Improve immune system function
7. Increase lean tissue & fat loss
8. Increase glucose use by muscle tissue
9. Decrease depression, anxiety, and mental stress
10. Increase muscle mass and tone
11. Improves sleep patterns, balance, and agility

Adenosine triphosphate (and other energy sources)

ATP - what all cells use for constant energy
Cells also use:
1. Phosphocreatine
2. Protein (aerobic)
3. Glucose
4. Fatty acids

Anaerobic Metabolism

Brief intensity activities not requiring oxygen and produces a small amount of energy; RELIANT on glycogen and PRODUCES lactate

Aerobic Metabolism

Long, low intensity activities that produce large amounts of energy; RELIANT on completely breaking down glucose and fatty acids and PRODUCES ATP

2. Macronutrients Used for Energy During Exercise of Long Duration

1. Carbohydrates (glucose)
2. Fats (fatty acids) if long and low intensity

VO2 max (what and how to improve)

WHAT - Oxygen consumption measured immediately before total exhaustion
- Sedimentary elderly person (15 ml O2/kg/min)
- Normal adult (35-45 ml O2/kg/min)
- Elite athlete (65-75 ml O2/kg/min)
HOW TO IMPROVE - Exercise improves by 15-20%

Weight loss by Dehydration (dangers and use)

DANGERS - Can lead to heatstroke, a life threatening reaction to heat build up in the body
WHY DO IT - easy to cut/lose weight (like wrestlers before a weigh-in)

Carbohydrates Consumed in an Athlete's Diet (HOW MANY)

60% of their total energy should be CHO

Carbohydrate Loading (what and when is it appropriate)

WHAT - trains the body to store more glycogen by depleting and repleting energy stores in high amounts
WHEN APPROPRIATE - appropriate for intense endurance sports (high intensity for over 90 minutes) but not for lower-intensity sports

Glycemic Index (what is it, its use, why is it not appropriate as a weight-loss reimen)

WHAT - scale to determine which foods are highest in glucose

1. Rates speed at which glucose from CHO enters the bloodstream (a low glycemic diet is better than a high one)
2. Athletes require low glycemic index foods before events and high-g.i. foods during/after events

NOT APPROPRIATE AS W/L REGIMEN - doesn't make a healthy diet

Protein Needs of an Athlete (how much and are supplements needed)

HOW MUCH - Should consume 1.2-1.8 protein/kg of body weight
SUPPLEMENTS NOT NEEDED - most Americans already consume 2-3x too much protein anyway

Vitamin/Mineral Needs of an Athlete (which ones and are supplements needed)

WHICH ONES - Antioxidants (in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and vegetable oils)
SUPPLEMENTS - NOT needed with well balanced diet (even with extra calories); if used keep below UL

2 Nutrients of Concern for Female Athletes

1. Iron - to prevent iron deficiency anemia
2. Calcium - to prevent development of stress fractures and osteoporosis

Fluids for an Athlete (fluid replacement, water v. sport drink use)

REPLACEMENT - based upon hourly sweat rate
WATER - for activities that last less than 1 hour
SPORTS DRINKS - for workouts longer than an hour; replaces CHO and sodium and aids in glucose use

Ergogenic Aids

Steroids to increase performance (most do not work and many are illegal in competitive sports)

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