Main points of chapter 11, Growth of Democracy?
• The role of Andrew Jackson's presidency in affirming and solidifying the new democratic policies
• The death of the American System
• Establishment of the basic two-party pattern of American political democracy
• The creation of a distinctive American cultural identity by writers, artists, and their audiences.
What was the "Albany Regency"?
A group of politicians who controlled the NY state government between 1822-1838. Among the first American political machines, led by Martin Van Buren.
How did the politics in America change?
American embraces popular democracy, move westward. By 1830, 1/3 of Americans live West of Appalachians
What happened with the Mexican struggle for popular rights?
1821- Mexico gains independence from Spain after 11 years of revolts. Declares itself a constitutional monarchy under rule of Colonel Agustin de Iturbide promises equality for everyone- short-lived, Spanish rule had left deep social divisions. Iturbide rules as emperor of Mexico for a year, overthrown by military junta, later executed as a traitor. Mexico's Constitution of 1824 models the US Constitution, creates federal republic but Catholic Church still has powerful political rule, granted president immense power in time of emergency. Weak presidents invoke emergency, rely on army to save chaotic economy and reconcile differences between rich and poor.v. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna saves Mexico from Spanish invasion, elected President in 1833, dominates Mexican politics. Assumes dictatorial, centralized power. Unresolved issue of elite versus popular rule continued to undermine hope for unity, popular rights, and stable government in independent Mexico.
When did Haiti gain independence? How did this affect the slave trade and other islands?
Haiti gains independence in 1804, destroys sugar labor because free slaves asserted their popular rights by refusing to work on plantations. As a result, revolts in the British Caribbean Islands (largest is Barbados 1816, Jamaica 1831)
As result of the revolts in the islands, what did the British do?
British parliament abolishes slavery in all British colonies, 1834. Sugar production plunges. Most or former slaves become poor peasants avoiding debt.
What cycle developed as a result of slave revolts in the British islands?
Revolt, emancipation, economic collapse, loss of local political autonomy.
How did the slave revolts in the British islands affect the US?
Slave owners in American South are fearful something similar will happen.
What crisis of popular rights occurred in Canada?
1837- Upper and Lower Canada rebel against limited representative government in British North America: Britain had imposed Constitution Act of 1791. In 1840, British abolish local government of Lower canada, join it to Upper canada in a union. French Canadians oppose; are minority.
What changes in the US counters these struggles for popular rights?
Rapid suffrage and growth of stable democratic political culture.
In what population did extension of suffrage occur?
By 1840, over 90% of white males could vote. Free blacks can vote only in 5 NE states, suffrage denied to women of any races.
How did west states fall into the new democratic policies?
By 1840, most west states have universal male suffrage or low taxpayer qualifications approaching universal suffrage. Free blacks CANT vote here.
What did Ohio think about blacks voting?
Deny free blacks right to vote, hold public office, and testify against white men in court cases in their Constitution.
What caused denial of voting to blacks?
Racism. Strengthened by back-lash of abolitionist movement in 1830s-1840s, argue that freeing black men will spur blacks out of South, adding to undesirable population in North and West.
Who sided with the slave south?
Democrats, oppose giving black men suffrage, the blacks would have voted for the National Republicans.
Why were women denied suffrage?
Traditional belief that man ran the household, women are considered subordinate to male relatives.
How were women important in politics?
First ladies like Dolly Madison and Abigail Adams influence decisions, women run boardinghouses in Washington, DC, give congressmen valuable information, serve as contacts.
What happened in the election of 1824?
"Corrupt election", John Quincy Adams wins over Andrew Jackson.
What was the new popular democratic culture?
Mass campaigns, huge political rallies, parades, candidates with "name recognition", lavish food and alcohol.
What marked the end of the political rule of the elite?
Democratic pride in participation, universal male suffrage. Workers in urban parades and celebrations, artisans show pride in their crafts.
How did the printing revolution affect politics?
Helps democratize politics- spreads words of parades, protests, celebrations (basis of popular democracy). Begins when in 1826, American Tract Society installs country's first steam-powered press. make religious phamplets.
What became a key part of the democratic culture as a result of the printing press invention?
What was the expansion of the franchise?
Opposition to land ownership as qualification for voting, demands that all white men be treated equally, political rights for white men expand, decrease for women and free blacks.
What did new politics focus on?
Participation and party loyalty, average voter encouraged to make a permanent commitment to a political party. Expected to show loyalty by coming to parades and political processions.
What happened in the Election of 1828?
Demonstrates power and effectiveness of new popular democratic culture and party system, voter turnout doubles, new democratically based political organizations help elect him, he wins. Democrats appeal to all north, south, east, west, helps them win. support strongest in south and west.
What was Jackson like?
Rich slave owner, military hero, undemocratic personality, mass appeal to ordinary people because he responds to the ways westward expansion and extension of suffrage changed the nations' politics at national, local, state levels, responded well to change.
Panic of 1837?
Jackson issues Specie Circular- proclamation in 1836, only gold or silver can be used for purchase of public land. Contraction of credit, worst American economy yet. Unemployment, poverty, banks close, lasted 6 years. Government doesn't intervene at all, considered normal bust.
What was the Second Party American System?
First is Federalists v. Jeffersonian Republican in 1790s, viewed as squabble threatening to the Republic. By 1830s, change of westward expansion and economy in Jacksonian era creates two basic patterns of American politics: two major parties: Whigs and Democrats.
Who were the Democrats and what did they believe?
Democrats: believe like Jefferson in small, independent rights of the yeoman farmers. have national appeal, especially in South and West (most rural regions), after Jackson,identified with independence and distaste for interference, favored expansion, Indian removal, freedom on frontier. Most Democratic voters opposed to rapid social and economic changes in the 1830s and 1840s. Majority power from 1828 to 1860.
Who were the Whigs and what did they believe?
Benefit from economic change, like Federalists believe in a strong federal role in the economy. Support Henry Clay's American System: strong national government, National bank, protective tariff, internal improvements. Religion is important, reformers believe everyone is capable of self-discipline. Favor government in social and economic affairs, call for education and social reforms. Most rich men are Whigs, greatest strength in NE and Old Northwest, ares affected by commercial agriculture and factory work. Won elections of 1840 and 1860.
How were the parties (Whigs and Democrats) similar?
Neither are completely unified; bot combination of local, regional, national interests. Job of party leader (Martin van Buren realizes this) is to forge the differing local party interests into a winning national majority.
Who did the Democrats appeal to?
Some workers in northern cities, mostly farmers. Urban workers don't care about rural issues, but share a dislike of big businesses with the Democrats
Who did the Whigs appeal to?
Southern planters with close ties to merchant policies attracted to strong government role in the economy. Less active than most Whigs, urban elite.
What was the campaign of 1840?
Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison, like Jackson, balance by nomination southerner John Tyler as vice president. Whig campaign tactics (dissing Van Buren) give Harrison clear win. Dies of pneumonia month after being elected, Tyler becomes president.
What did Tyler do as President?
Vetoed bills promoting Henry Clay's American System (tariffs, internal improvements, national bank. Congressional Whigs force Tyler out of their party, cabinet of Whigs resigns. Tyler appoints Democrats. Whig triumph of 1840 negated by stalemate between Tyler and the Whig majority in Congress. Whigs only win one more election, in 1848.
What kind of American identity under Jackson did arts and letters reflect?
Western belligerency and combative individualism. Popular culture and intellect, literature, information. Writers and artists make distinctive American literature and art.
What were the popular cultures and how were they spread by the written word?
Print revolution makes increase in pamphlets and newspapers, foster many cultures. "Penny papers" in NY become hugely popular in 1833; scandalous gossip. Religious literature is still wide-read, literary magazines.
When was the first message sent with the telegraph, how was this invention significant?
Sent from Washington to Baltimore in 1844 by Samuel B. Morse, messages can be sent instantaneously across the continent, individual gets access to information easily and quickly. Horizon and sense of community broadened.
How did people create a new national American culture?
Look to British for values, standards, literature. In early 1800s, eastern seaboard builds culture for foundation for rest of nation
What was founded in America's new national culture?
Philadelphia's American Philosophical Society, hospitals, libraries.
Which regions did not particularly support culture?
The South and West. In South, only by elite, hard to keep alive. South cedes cultural leadership to North. Pioneers not interested in literary culture, newspapers and religious journals have major hold in West.
What gap widened as a result of the emergence of the new culture?
Gap between rich, intellectual Northerners and ignorant Southern farmers. Part of unfinished task is to fill this gap.
What did the print revolution have the greatest affect in?
Greatest growth in newspapers and pamphlets, foster a variety of popular cultures.
How did the artisan and builders affect the developing American culture?
Western painters draw western landscape and its people. Important to America's sense of land and identity. Depict Indians and real American workers. Architecture- Americans use hasty balloon-frame construction that could be put up quickly, easily, cheaply.
Key topics of chapter 12?
preindustrial ways of working and living, the nature of the market revolution, the effects of industrialization on workers in early factories, ways the market revolution changed the lives of ordinary people, the emergence of the middle class.
How did people work pre industrially?
Farm families work together to make goods and food for their own and community use. Barter, labor, goods exchanged instead of money. Home and work intermixed.
How did apprenticeship work before industrialization?
Live with master craftsman, treated as family rather than an employee. At end of contract, apprentice becomes journeyman craftsman. Journeymen work for wages in shops of master craftsman until they can start shops of their own.
What was the role of a woman in the house before industrialization?
Expected to only need domestic work, women who want to work work as domestic servants, laundresses, seamstresses, cooks, food vendors, ran boardinghouses.
How was patriarchy present in family, work, and society?
All working families are patriarchal, man directs and controls family completely. Decides jobs for sons, marriages for daughters. Wife feeds family, raises children, takes care of apprentices, domestic affairs.
What was the basic patriarchal principle?
Men represented the common interest of everyone for whom he was responsible- his woman, children, apprentices.
What was the preindustrial social order?
Artisans below merchants, but above laboring class. Yeoman farmers are under large landowners, above farm laborers and tenant farmers. Great importance placed on rank and status.
What were the main components of the transportation revolution?
1800-1840- canals (and steamboats), railroads, and roads.
How did the transportation revolution affect Americans?
Easier for people to get places, more mobile, broaden Americans' minds, people now have access to commercial goods.
What was the National Road?
1808- built of gravel on a stone foundation, crossed the Appalachian Mountains at Cumberland, MD, opens up West. More adds on to go to west. Ties the East and West together, helps foster national community.
What was the Erie Canal?
Canal linking NYC and the Great Lake through the Hudson River, stretches from Albany to Buffalo.
Who worked on the Erie Canal and most other canals?
At first, local farmers, after malaria outbreak, replaced by Irish contract immigrants who are more expensive but more reliable also. Local people frightened. Canals and railroads would be filled with incoming immigrant labor.
What were some affects of the Erie Canal?
Easy passage for people and goods, draws settlers from East and overseas, people move west on canal to settle.
How did the Erie canal affect textile and produce?
Production of homespun cloth in towns and cities along the canal declines, people buy manufactured textiles instead of making own. Earlier settlers have market for produce.
What happened to the cities along the canals?
Become instant cities; Utica, Rochester, Buffalo, important commercial centers. NYC established commercial and financial supremacy.
How did the Erie canal affect NY merchants?
Merchants turn away from Europe, towards America, build interstate commerce and a feeling of community.
How did the steamboats affect trade?
Stimulate trade, increased downriver flatboat trade (boatmen could make round trips in the same amount of time and travel home in the speed and comfort of a steamboat. Introduces urban growth and commerce, economic surges.
Effects of transportation revolution?
Increase in economic growth by making distant markets available, canals and railroads attract large capital investment and foreign investment. Fosters risk-taking mentality in America, stimulates innovation and invention, mobility, helps Americans to focus on their own country instead of foreign ones. Made the larger market possible that commercialization and industrialization depended on.
What was the Market Revolution a result of?
Transportation revolution, commercialization, and industrialization.
How does accumulation of capital come about?
Business community of merchants in Northern seaboard cities (NY, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston). Many make profits off of shipping boom 1790-1807, attracts lots of enterprising people and risk-takers.
How was national trade in the early 1800s, and what happened as a result?
National trade difficult, wealthy invest locally.
Where did most of the capital for new investments come from?
Local and international (in seaport cities) banks. Also, family connections; people consolidate position and property through marriage.
How did northerners control the economy?
Build the nation's ships, control the shipping trade, provide nation's banking, insurance, financial services. Increase in cotton exports and therefore production.
How was the development of northern industry paid for?
By southern cotton produced by slaves, wealth from cotton fuels the market revolution.
What was the putting-out system?
Production of goods in provate homes under the supervision of a merchant who "put out" the raw materials, paid a certain sum per finished piece, and sold the completed item to a distant market.
Who did the putting-out system give control to?
Merchant capitalists, who could now control labor costs, production goals, and shoe styles.
What increased as a result of the putting-out system and what did it replace?
Shoe production increases dramatically, central workshops replace artisans' shops. Apprentice system disappears.
How did transportation advancements affect farmers' produce?
Made it easier for farmers to get their produce to markets, agricultural technology increases amount of acreage farmers can cultivate. Ensure farmers' access to market for their crops. Ties individual farmers into national and international commercial networks.
What moved American farmers from subsistence agriculture and into production for sale?
New agricultural machinery and rich, cheap, available land.
After the transportation revolution, where did settlement increase?
In Old Northwest, in 1830s after opening of Erie Canal.
How did the government policy encourage western settlement?
Federal government decreases price of land to $1.25/acre for 80 acres in 1820. Still expensive, there are squatters, other settlers rely on credit.
How were farmers affected by the transportation revolution and commercialization?
They now had direct dependence on economic forces outside of their community. Distant markets establish crop prices, railroad and canal companies set transportation rates and the state of the national economy, dependence on technology.
When was the steel plow invented and how did it affect cultivation?
John Deere's steel plow, 1837, cuts plowing time in half, increases cultivation of larger acreage
How did British industrialization affect American industrialization?
British industrialization begins in 1700s as a result of changes in textiles. Contrasts putting-out system: in industrialization, workers are concentrated in factories, and are paced with machinery. Americans copy British industrialism technology in factories and textile mills.
When was the first tariff passed?
passed in 1816 mostly aimed against British cotton textiles in response to New England pleas.
When and by who were the Lowell mills founded?
Francis Cabot Lowell founds them- visits England in 1810, views British textile mills, brings back ideas to America. Returns to US, works with Paul Moody and invent power loom, make machinery for spinning cotton more efficient. 1814, opens first integrated cotton mill in Waltham, great success, survives War of 1812 when others fail. UNIQUE.
What did the power loom do?
Allow all aspects of textile manufacturing to be completed in the same factory.
What was the average mill like?
Small, hire entire families, children aged 8-12 make up 50% of workforce, women make up 25%, men make up 25%, men had most skilled and well-paid jobs.
What was the American System?
A technique of production pioneered in the US that relied on precision manufacturing with the use of interchangeable parts. First used in gun manufacturing.
How did the "American System of Manufacturers" work?
First, product is broken into component parts, exact mold is made for each. All pieces made from same mold, matched uniform standard, makes life easier
What product's production increased greatly after standardized production grew?
Guns, are more accessible and cheap.
What made the increase in production possible?
Division of labor and specialization that destroyed the artisan production and the apprenticeship system.
What was the apprentice system replaced by?
Child labor (because parents received money for their children's work).
What liberated and gave women and children more opportunities?
The breakdown of the family work system and working in the mills.
Why did the southerners criticize northerners?
They claimed that they treated their "wage slaves" (workers) "heartlessly", while the southerners carried out a cradle-to-grave-responsibilty, while workers are responsible for their own housing and food.
How did mechanization affect women's work?
Industrialization poses threat to status and independence of skilled male workers, mechanization means most tasks can be performed by unskilled labor (children and women). Relieves women of time-consuming home occupations, women have greater work opportunities in factories or at home.
Why did males oppose female participation in the work force?
They feared that it would lower their own wages.
When did the garment industry begin and who made up the work force?
1820s, overcrowding of market lead to low wages, women are pushed into garment trade because the lack of occupations, oversupply of workers leads to wage cutting.
What did many people of women working in factories?
Believed that "respectable" women did not work in factories: low pay, poor living conditions.
What was the result of the surge in immigration?
Urban growth, begins in 1820s, increases greatly after 1830. By 1860, 48% of NY's population was foreign-born.
Where did most of the immigrants come from?
Irish- Potato Famine, first large refugee group. Germans, half of Irish and most of Germans are Protestant, conflict.
How did immigrants feed industrialization and westward expansion?
Industries needed willing workers, western states needed settlers. Irish men complete Erie canal, women work in Lowell mills.
What conditions did the immigrants face?
Harsh living and working conditions, alienation from Americans.
How were states and cities affected by the immigrants?
Cities unprepared for so many immigrants, states and cities are responsible for receiving immigrants, not federal government until 1880s.
Where did most of the Irish come?
New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore. Crowd cities, miserable housing, desperate for any work. Mostly NY. Lots in Boston, hate Irish for being "illiterate peasants", "Irish Need No Apply" for jobs.
Who invited the Germans to a particular state?
William Penn invites Germans, by 1790, Germans make up 1/3 of Pennsylvania's population.
Why did Germans immigrate to America, for the most part?
Most are a small farmer or artisan drawn by America's commercialization and industrialization.
Where did most Germans leave Germany from?
Ports if Bremen and Le Harve, main ports of American tobacco and cotton. Tobacco boats take Bremen passengers to Baltimore cotton ships took them to New Orleans. From here, go up Mississippi and Ohio Valleys.
How did Germans create their own communities and culture?
Create clusters of German churches, schools, communities, would attract other Germans from the US and Europe. "Little Germanies"- sought to replicate rich culture of cities in Germany.
What drew Chinese immigrants in the early 1800s?
The Gold Rush of California, Chinese work in mines. American miners dislike their clannishness and industriousness. By mid-1860s, Chinese workers make up 90% of laborers building the Central Pacific railroad and San Francisco's China Town well established, thrives.
How did the Irish create their own communities?
In Boston and New York, establish catholic churches, schools with nuns, religious and social clubs, lodges, brotherhoods, sisterhoods. Help, close community.
Who were most German immigrants, unlike the Irish?
Most are skilled workers, richer than the Irish, but form church societies, mutual benefit societies to provide support, more successful communities than Irish.
How did immigrants contribute to the new popular culture?
Working-class amusements become rougher and rowdier, brawls and riots, Irish face unemployment and discrimination, newspapers compare them to monkeys, insist they're "white". Theaters become scene of violence.
What were the black-face minstrel shows?
White actors would blacken their faces, entertain audiences with racist songs, dances, theatrical skits.
What marked Urban America?
Rapid growth, occupational and ethic change, economic competition, new American political and social forms emerge.
How did cities grow?
Market revolution drastically increases size of American cities, seaports lead the way, migrate to cities.
How was the growth of Chicago made possible?
The railroad- it became a major junction for water and rail transport.
What were the 5 biggest cities?
NY, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans. NY was most populated city largest port, financial center. Between 1820-1830, NY's population grows greatly.
What were the preindustrial cities in the 1700s like?
Small, compact "walking cities"- mingling of social classes, neighborliness
How did immigration change the character of urban life?
It sharpened class differences. Gap between rich and poor widens- by 1840s, top 1% own 40% of nation's wealth, 1/3 of population own nothing. Small, wealthy elite and large, working poor class.
Where did new immigrant families live?
Unskilled labor in poor jobs, cheap renting houses, move frequently, depended on more than one income.
How did the artisans/skilled workers live and how did the middle class live?
A/SW live somewhat comfortable, middle class live comfortably, build elaborate mansions and large town houses with many servants, have summer houses in New England.
What were the cities in the early 1800s like?
Lack excess water, sewers, garbage collection. Throw trash in streets, contaminate drinking water- yellow fever, cholera, typhus epidemics.
Why didn't the cities take fast action to sanitation problems?
Cost and poor medical understanding. Philadelphia first to complete city water system, only rich can afford
What health services did the cites make that only the rich could afford?
Garbage collection, sewage, water mains, street paving.
As middle class left, where did the poor go?
poor cluster in slums, immigrants, free blacks, criminals crammed into rundown buildings, starvation, crime, murder, gangs
After increase of immigrants in the 1830s, what did the middle-class Americans see the slums as?
Homes of inferior foreigners, blamed disease on immigrants.
What were the "Penny Papers?"
"Penny papers" publicize challenges to the middle class, begin publication in 1833, part of democratic political spirit that led to upsurge in political participation.
What did the working class use the streets for?
Parades, celebrations, marches, most in New Orleans, where there are many blacks.
What did NY do in response to civic disorder?
1820s and 1830s- hire more city watchmen, constables, marshals. Death common as they restrained mobs. In 1845, city creates permanent police force.
Who were the most common targets of urban violence?
1830s- urban riots break out between free blacks and Catholics, Irish immigrants met with anti-Catholicism. Free blacks most common target.
By 1860, free blacks are 11% of population in America, more than half of free blacks live in north, mostly cities. Compete with immigrants and white poor people for jobs. Philadelphia and NY have biggest black communities. Face racial segregation: job discriminations, severe limitations on civil rights.
Hypothetical reason for why we're so democratic, optimistic, adventurous?
Because we settled new frontiers.
What was Manifest Destiny?
Doctrine, first expressed in 1845, that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and ordained by God. Distinguished by its racism. A self-serving justification for territorial aggrandizement, associated with the Democratic Party.
What did the US use to justify westward expansion and risking war with Britain and Mexico?
What did the Whigs think of expansion?
Opposed expansion, welcomed industrialism, advocated focusing on the growth and development of land they already had.
What did the Whigs fear that expansion would do?
Feared it would heighten conflict of extension of slavery into new territories, which it did.
What did the Democrats associate with industrialism and what did the Whigs associate with it?
Democrats: economic depression, uncontrolled economic growth, social unrest. Whigs: economic growth.
Why did most average farmers move West?
Land hunger, national pride, curiosity, sense of adventure, necessity.
What did many Democrats think about Jefferson's agricultural beliefs?
Thought that they should follow Jefferson's vision and establish agriculture in new territories to counterbalance industrialization. Many Democrats are Southern farmers.
What were the Overland Trails?
Trail going from Missouri River to Oregon and California, 2,000 miles, takes 7 months. Travel is slow, dangerous, tedious, exhausting.
How did most pioneers travel socially?
In groups of wagons, feared Indian attacks. They formed "trains" of pioneer families. Leave in spring.
What were some of the hardships for pioneers moving west?
It's dangerous to cross rivers and mountains, cholera and disease, trailside graves, drowning, accidental ax wounds or shootings, children falling out of wagons and getting run over.
Did lots of people use the Overland Trails?
By 1860, 300,000 people had traveled to the Overland Trails to Oregon and California?
What was the Convention of 1818?
Metting between Britain and the US that established the joint share of Oregon. Britain clearly dominates region with fur trading.
What did the Hudson Bay Company establish in 1824 that negatively impacted the local Indians?
A major fur post at Fort Vancouver, banks of Columbia River, houses Indians, all local Indians decimated by disease.
Who were the first European settlers in Oregon?
Retired fur trappers, their Indian wives, and their families, favor Willamette Valley
Who did the Willamette Valley house and what was the result of this?
Housed French, Americans, British, French Canadians, Indians, mixing and blending of cultures.
For early settlers in Oregon, how was life hard? Who helped them survive?
Most arrive in late fall, can't plant crops, rely on earlier settlers and the Hudson Bay Company (British) for food and aid.
How did settlers in Oregon affect the US' relationship with Britain?
They drew up their own constitution.
How did President James K. Polk approach the topic of the Oregon territory?
He threatened that the US would go to war if it didn't get all territory south of the 54 degree 40' north latitude: "Fifty-four Forty or Fight".
When did Britain and the US make the treaty of Oregon and what did it establish?
1846- 49th parallel established as the US-Canadian border.
When did the Hudson Bay Company close, why, and what did this end?
1849, declining fur trade, ends Pacific Northwest's joint occupancy.
What did Oregon's Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 establish?
Practice of giving 320 acres to each white male 18 and over 640 acres to each married couple to settle in the territory. All other races excluded.
How was family important to the pioneers?
Family is vital; kinship networks were strong and vital because many pioneers came to join family who had migrated before them.
What did the pioneers of Oregon think of the Indians at first?
Relations with small local tribes peaceful until 1847
What was the Santa Fe trade?
Americans travel into Sante Fe on the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri, serious chance of Indian attack, hot, dry.
As time went on, how did the number of people traveling on the Santa Fe Trail change, and why?
It increased because profits from trade was so profitable.
How did Americans start frontier contact in New Mexico?
American merchants marry daughters of local important families.
What grew on the Santa Fe Trail as Americans further commercialized it?
Settlements and trading posts.
Who were the Empresarios?
Agents who received a land grant from the Spanish or Mexican government in return for organizing settlements.
What were communities in New Mexico organized around?
The missions and presidios (forts), which formed nuclei of towns, large cattle-raising ranches, rural living depended on these.
What were most Tejanos?
Not ricos or vaqueros, small farmers or common laborers. Constant threat of raids from Comanche Indians.
Who were the Comanches?
They reintroduced horses to North America, known as legendary warriors, raided small Texas settlements and did what they wanted. Followed herds of buffalo: depended on them for food and clothing, nomadic.
How was the American settlement in Texas different from that elsewhere?
Is completely legal; owned lands as resul of formal contracts with Mexican government.
What did the Americans agree to do in exchange for settlement and land?
Agreed to become Mexican citizens and Catholics
What was the first American settler, Stephen F. Austin's community like?
Hand-picked settlers; prosperous southern slave owners eager to expand their land for cotton growing.
Soon, what was the American's population compared to that of Tejanos?
Americans and blacks outnumber Tejanos two to one.
Austin's settlement modeled what later ones, which were like what?
Large settlements that grew cotton, grew by slaves, sold in international market. Ignored Mexicans, Tejanos.
By the 1830s, what were Americans sending out of Texas?
Sending $500,000 worth of cotton and goods to New Orleans for export.
Did the American's follow their promises initially towards Mexico?
Nope; don't learn spanish, adopt Catholicism, or become Mexican citizens.
What happened in Mexico in 1828 that affected the Americans?
Centrists gain control over northern province, exercise firm control over northern province, restrict American immigration, outlaw slavery, levied customers duties and taxes.
When did Americans flood into Texas and why?
1830, plan to take over Texas, anti-Mexican, consider them inferior racially. Most are southerners.
What ended the Texan War (Treaty)?
Santa Anna signs treaty in 1836, fixes southern boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande.
What did the Mexican Congress do in response to the treaty that ended the Texan War?
Repudiates treaty, fails to recognize Texan independence.
When did Texas apply for statehood?
1837, applies for admission to Union, Congress refuses, heavy debates.