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Eriksons 8 Stages
Each having its own developmental crisis, one healthy and one unhealthy way to resolve.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 1: Birth to 18 months
o Form a loving, trusting relationship with caregiver
o Response to needs will determine who child can depend on
o Needs to trust the world in order to venture into it
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Stage 2: 18 months to 3 years old
o Self-control and self-confidence begin to develop
o Doing things on their own
o Too controlling parents will restrict the child's self-control
o Children need encouragement and support or they experience shame.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 3: 3 to 6 years old
o More assertive, independent
o Plans and undertakes their own action
o Self-control must be exercised for some actions
o Adults must refrain from unnecessary interfering
Industry vs. Inferiority
Stage 4: 6 to 12 years old
o Deal with new demands, many of which come from school
o Sense of industry, perseverance and completing jobs can lead to satisfaction
o Learn to function in a number of settings (home, school, etc.)
o Peers become increasingly important
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Stage 5: Adolescence
o Focused on answering "Who am I?", forms the basis for adulthood
o Organization of drives, abilities, beliefs and personal history
o Development of a personal identity
o Role Confusion
• Foreclosure (do not experiment, just choose an identity, parents lifestyle or wishes)
• Diffusion (make no choices, don't have an interest)
• Moratorium (Delays making decisions, can be good or bad)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 6: Young Adulthood
o Be able to develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
o Through parenting or mentoring, healthy adults want to support next generation.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 8: Late Adulthood
o Reflection on and acceptance of ones life
o Sense of acceptance for healthy individuals, fulfillment.
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