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Muscle fiber organelle that surrounds each myofibril; stores calcium and releases when muscle is signaled to contract
An electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse polarity
Direct phosphorylation of ADP by CP
When ATP is depleted, it leaves ADP. CP transfers a phosphate group to ADP, regenerating more ATP; exhausted in ~15 sec.
Respiration where oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down into water, carbon dioxide, and 32 ATP; occurs in the mitochondria by a series of metabolic pathways that use oxygen. The reaction overall is slow and requires continuous oxygen
Anaerobic glycosis and lactic acid formation
Glucose breaks down in cytosol without oxygen, resulting in pyruvic acid that converts to lactic acid; creates 2 ATP per 1 glucose. Process is 2x faster than aerobic respiration
When myofilaments are able to slide past each other during contractions; muscle shortens and movement occurs
When tension in the muscle increases but the muscle is unable to shorten or produce movement
A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction; proximal end is stationary and distal end is in motion
Fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle, but have an enlarged belly; football shaped
Muscle on the face just inferior to the zygomaticus; allows for cheek flattening and chewing
2-headed muscle found on either side of the neck; allows for neck flexion and lateral rotation
Convergent muscle covering the upper part of the chest; flexes and adducts the humerus
Paired, strap-like muscles most superficial on the abdomen; allows for flexion of vertebral column, compresses abdominal contents, and aids in childbirth, defecation, and forced breathing
Muscles that make up the lateral wall of abdomen; flexes vertebral column, rotates trunk, allows for lateral bending
Most superficial muscles of the posterior upper trunk; extends the head, and moves the scapula
Deep muscle group that is the prime mover of back extension; also stabilizes spine when bending over
Muscle that forms a small part of the posterior abdominal wall; flexes the spine laterally and together extend the lumbar spine
Lies deep to gluteus maximus; allows for thigh abduction and steadies pelvis when walking
Fused muscles on the lower limb; prime mover of hip flexion, keeps upper body from falling back when standing
Muscle group forming the mass of posterior thigh; prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion
Muscle group that forms the mass of the anterior thigh; extends knee, helps to flex hip
Muscle group found on the lateral part of the leg; allows for plantar flexion and eversion
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