57 terms

Brainstem Syndromes

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Weber Syndrome
Midbrain: Paramedian Branches of PCA and Basilar Perforators
(Ipsilateral) CN III Palsey
(Contralateral) Weakness, vertical gaze palsey
Claude Syndrome
Midbrain: PCA occlusion - stroke of rednucleus and cerebral peduncle
(Ipsilateral) CN III Palsey
(Contralateral) Ataxia, Tremor, Vertical Gaze Palsey
Benedikt Syndrome
Paramedian Midbrain Syndrome: Similar to Weber Syndrome except hemiparesis instead of hemiplegia
Nothnagel Syndrome
Midbrain:
(Ipsalateral) CN III Palsey
(Contralateral) Ataxia and vertical gaze palsey
Parinaud Syndrome
Midbrain:
Paralysis of Upgaze, Convergance Retraction Nystagmus, Lid Retration, Near light Dissociation
Weber syndrome site
Base of Brain
Weber Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN III
Weber Syndrome Tracts
Corticospinal Tract
Weber Syndrome Signs
Oculomotor palsey with crossed hemiplegia
Weber Syndrome Causes
Vascular Occlusion, Tumor, Aneurysm
Claude Syndrome Site
Base of Brain
Claude Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN III
Claude Syndrome Tracts
Red Nucleus and Brachium Conjunctivum
Claude Syndrome Signs
Occulomotor palsey with contralateral cerebellar ataxia and termor
Claude Syndrome Causes
Vascular Occlusions, tumor, aneurysm
Benedikt Syndrome Site
Tegmentum of Brain
Benedikt Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN III
Benedikt Syndrome Tracts
Red Nucleus, Corticospinal Tract, Brachium Conjunctivum
Benedikt Syndrome Signs
Oculomotor Palsey, contralateral cerebellar ataxia, tremor and corticospinal signs
Benedikt Sindrome Causes
Infarction, Hemorrhage, Tuberculoma, Tumor
Nothnagel Syndrome Site
Tectum of Midbrain
Nothnagel Syndrome Cranial Nerves
Unilateral or Bilateral CN III
Nothnagel Syndrome Tracts
Superior Cerebellar Peduncle
Nothnagel Syndrome Signs
Ocular Palsey, Occular paralysis of gaze and cerebellar ataxia
Nothnagel syndrome Causes
Tumor
Parinaud Syndrome Site
Dorsal Midbrain
Parinaud Syndrome Cranial Nerves Involved
CN III
Parinaud Syndrome Tracts Involved
Supranuclear mechanism for forward upward gaze and periaquaductal gray matter
Parinaud Syndrome Signs
Paralysis of upward gaze and accommodation, fixed pupils
Parinaud Syndrome Causes
Pinealoma and other lesions of dorsal midbrain, hydrocephalus
Millard-Gubler syndrome and Raymond Foville Syndrome Site
Base of Pons
Millard-Gubler syndrome and Raymond Foville Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN VII and Often CN VI
Millard-Gubler syndrome and Raymond Foville Syndrome Tracts
Corticospinal Tract
Millard-Gubler syndrome and Raymond Foville Syndrome Signs
Facial and abducens palsey, contralateral hemiplegia, gaze palsey on side of lesion
Millard-Gubler syndrome and Raymond Foville Syndrome Causes
Infarction, Tumor
Avellis Syndrome Site
Tegmentum of Medulla
Avellis Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN X
Avellis Syndrome Tracts
Spinothalamic Tract, sometimes decending pupillary fibers with Bernard Horner Syndrome
Avellis Syndrome Signs
Paralysis of soft palate and vocal cord and contralateral hemianesthesia
Avellis Syndrome Causes
Infarction and Tumor
Jackson Syndrome Site
Tegmentum of Medulla
Jackson Syndrome Cranial Nerves
CN X and XII
Jackson Syndrome Tracts
Corticospinal Tract
Jackson Syndrome Signs
Paralysis of soft palate, vocal cord, contralateral hemianesthesia and ipsilateral tongue paralysis
Jackson syndrome Causes
Infarction and tumor
Wallenberg Syndrome Site
Lateral Tegmentum of Medulla
Wallenberg Syndrome Cranial Nerves
Spinal Tract V, IX, X, XI
Wallenberg Syndrome Tracts
Lateral Spinothalamic Tract, Decending pupillodilator fibers, Spinocerebellar and Olivocerebellar tracts
Wallenberg Syndrome Signs
Ipsilateral V, IX, X, XI palsey, horner syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, contralateral loss of pain and temperature sense
Wallenberg Syndrome Causes
Occlusion of vertebral or PICA
Medial Medullary Syndrome (Dejerine Syndrome)
Structures Affected
Twelfth nerve nucleus
Pyramidal tract
MLF
Medial Lemniscus
Medial Medullary Syndrome Signs
Ipsilateral Paralysis of Tongue
Contralateral Paralysis of arm and leg
Contralateral Impared proprioceptive sense over body
Basilar Artery Syndrome
Structures Affected
Corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts
Occulomotor Nerve, Apparatus for Conjugate Gaze, MLF, Vestibular Apparatus
Visual Cortex
Cerebellum
Tegmentum of Thalmi
Basilar Artery Syndrome Signs
Paralysis of bulbar and corticospinal paralysis
Diplopia and paralysis of conjugate gaze
Blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects
Bilateral Cerebellar ataxia
Coma
Middle Inferior Pontine Syndrome Structures
PPRF
Vestibular Nuclei
Abducens nerve nucleus
middle cerebral pedunce
ipsilateral paralysis of face
ipsilateral muscles of mastication
Lateral Inferior Pontine Syndrome
Structures Affected
Vestibular Nucleus
Seventh Nerve Nucleus
PPRF
Auditory nerve nuclei
Middle cerebral peduncle and hemisphere
main sensory nucleus and descending tract
Impaired muscles of mastication
Lateral Inferior Pontine Syndrome Signs
Horizontal and vertical nystagmus
Facial Paralysis
Paralysis conjugate gaze to side of lesion
Deafness
Tinnitus
Ataxia
Impaired Sensation to the Face
Impaired Muscles of Mastication