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Human Biology Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (46)
Classification of living things
The rest of story
Organization of human Body
Kingdom Atoms organism
Phylum Molecules population
Class Organelles community
Order Cells ecosystem
Family Tissues biosphere
Species organs system
Chapter 2: Functions of cellular structure
Eukaryote = true nucleus
Prokaryote = No nucleus
Plasma membrane = outer covering of cell
cytoplasm = everything inside besides nucleus
organelles = cary out functions such as digestion nutrients.
Golgi apparatus = refines packages and ships macromolecule products
Ribosomes= site of protein synthesis
Lysosomes = digests damaged organelles and cellular debris.
Peroxisome= destroys cellular toxic waste.
Mitochondrion = Produces energy for cell.
Chapter 3: Tissues
Sheet of cells that lines or covers various space/surfaces and body cavities.
simple and statiffied
Simple Squamous: Lines blood vessels, air sacs lungs.
Simple Cuboidal: Lines kidneys, Secretes, reabsorbs water/small molecules.
Simple Columnar: Lines most digestives organs, absorbs nutrients/produces mucus.
Stratified Squamous: Outer layer of skin, mouth, vagina. abrasion, infection.
Stratified Cuboidal: Lines ducts sweat glands secretes water.
Stratified Columnar: Mammary glads, larynx, secretes mucus.
Special connective tissues
Fibrous: Connective tissues
Loose: Surround internal organs, blood vessels.
Dense: Tendons, ligaments
Elastic: Stretches hollow organs
Reticular Lymphoid: internal framework for liver, spleen, tonsils, lymph glands.
Cartilage: Primarily collagen, fibers in ground substance containing water. (Resistance, compression)
Bone: Hard mineral deposits of calcium and phosphate. (Very strong)
Blood: Blood cells, platelets and blood fluid called plasma (Transports materials, helps defense mechanisms).
Adipose tissue: Filled with fat deposits. (Stores energy)
Skeletal: Attached to muscle/move bones
Cardiac: Muscle that pumps the heart
Smooth: Stomach lungs, intestines, blood vessels, uterus.
Nervous tissue: Cells generate and trasmite electrical impulses throughout the body. (Neurons).
Cell body = location nucleus
Dendrites = extension from cell body/ receive from other neurons.
Axon = transmits electrical impulses over long distance.
Integumentary System: Protects form injury, infection, dehydration. Temp control, receive sensory input.
Skeletal System: Protects, supports. produces blood cells/minerals
Muscular system: Produce movement/resists movement. Generates heat.
Nervous System: Detects external/internal stimuli
rapid responses to stimuli
Endocrine System: provides body with water, nutrients. Liver synthesizes some proteins lipids + inactivates chemicals like: hormones, drugs, poison.
Circulatory System: Transports materials from cells. Control Temp, helps defense against disease/injury.
Lymphatic System: Return excess tissue fluid to circulatory system.
Respiratory System: Exchanges gases (oxygen/carbon dioxide) between air/blood. Production of sound (Voice).
Urinary System: Maintains volume/ composition body fluids. Excretes wastes.
Chapter 4 Skeletal
Parts of long bone:
Epiphysis: spongy bone, red bone marrow.
Diaphysis: Shaft, yellow marrow (fat).
Attach bone to bone.
Attach Bone to muscle.
Fibrous joints are immovable.
Cartilaginous joints are slightly movable allowing some movement.
Synovial joints are freely movable.
Muscle requires ATP for both contraction and relaxation.
Fast Fiber (White) vs Slow Fiber (Red)
Muscle activated by a nerve, nerve activation increase calcium around contractile proteins.
Calcium presence permits contraction. Nerve stimulus no longer present, contraction ends.
Motor neurons stimulate contraction.
Diffusion across Neuromuscular junction
impulse, t-tubules, triggers release of Ca, filament Actin/Myosin towards one another. Sarcomere shorten
Fast Fiber = large diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserve. fatigue quickly because using ATP/ few mitochondria. (Sprinter, body builder).
Slower Fiber = Stay contracted long period of time. Extensive network of capillaries, high oxygen/concentration of myoglobin + many mitochondria.
Chapter 6: Blood
Natural process of stopping the flow or loss of blood.
Function of blood:
First 3 = 45%
Red blood cells
White blood cells
3 types of proteins:
Albumins, Globulins, Clotting.
Transport oxygen to body tissues; RBC = transport carbon dioxide away from tissue.
WBC = Defend the body against invading organism, abnormal cells.
Take part in blood clotting as part of the body's defense mechanisms.
Plasma = 90% = H2o
Composed of dissolved proteins, hormones, carbs, amino acids, vitamins, ions, waste products.
RBC = Erythrocytes carries O2 & Co2
O2 biding with protein = hemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin: Hemoglobin with 4 O2, inside tissue, lower PH & O2.
Deoxyhemoglobin: Hemoglobin transports some C02.
Carbominohemoglobin: Maintain body's PH, % of blood consisting of RBC's.
Men = 45%
Women = 40%
Chapter 7 Cardiovascular
Function of blood vessels
Arteries = carry blood away from heart.
Capillaries = Every living cell near undergoes cellular respiration.
2 type = Hydrostatic/osmotic pressure.
HP = Force fluids out
OP = Reabsorption in last half of capillaries. Extracellular fluids pick up by lymphatic system.
Veins = Bring the flow of blood back to the heart.
3 layers: muscle pump, valves, changes in pressures in the chest.
Location = plural cavity
Sac around = pericardium
Layers of heart = epicardium, Myocardium, endocardium.
Pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood.
Deoxygenated blood through vena caves to right atrium.
Right AV valve to R Ventricle.
Pulmonary semilunar valve to palm and lungs.
oxygenated blood through plum veins to L atrium.
Oxygenated blood through L AV valve to L ventricle.
Oxygenated blood through aortic semilunar valve to aorta
Oxygenated blood through arteries, arterioles to capillaries.
Deoxygenated blood from capillary to veins, vena caves, R Atrium.
Chapter 8 Respiratory System
Exchanges of gases (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide).
Ventilation = moving air in/out lungs.
External Respiration = Exchange gases between inhaled air/ blood lugs.
Internal Respiration = Exchange of gases between blood and tissue.
Nose: Smell, filter air, warms, humidifies air, assists with voice.
Nasal Cavity: Secrete mucus, warms and humidities cilia.
Pharynx: Common passage way for food/air.
Larynx: Maintains open airway/routes food/air sound.
2 structures: Epiglottis, vocal cords.
Trachea: Transports air/ C-Shaped, lined/ cilia, epithelium, secretes mucus.
Alveoli = small sack air
a type of interoceptor that is stimulated by pressure changes, as those in blood vessel walls.
Chapter 9 Immune
Bacteria = Prokaryote --> no nucleus
DNA: Single closed loop in cytoplasm, attached to plasma membrane. ATP from Carbohydrates and fats.
Bacterial diseases = Tetanus, cholera, tuberculosis.
Small than bacteria/human cell
influenza, herpes, simplex, hepatitis.
Misfold form of normal brain cell protein.
Transmissibility = how easily pathogen is passed.
Function of Lymphatic System
White pulp: lymphocytes
Red pulp: macrophages
3 Functions = helps maintain blood volume, transport fats/ fat soluble, vitamins, defends against infections.
Subclavian veins = filter out.
Lymph nodes cleanse the lymphs (debris abnormal cells).
Spleen cleans blood. (Largest organ in lymphatic system).
Thymus: upper chest
Secrete 2 hormones; t-cells and mature thymosin.
Tonsils & Adenoids: guard trout from microorganism. (Tonsillitis).
Chapter 10: Nervous
Division of Central and Peripheral systems.
Parts: Axons, dendrites, cell body.
3 type: Sensory:
Provide: input to CN.
Interneurons: Transmit impulses within CN.
Motor: Transmit signals to axon terminal in muscles.
Relays info between tissues and CNS.
Nerves carry signals to and from CNS.
Cranial 12 pairs
Spinal 31 pairs
Sensory & Motor
Reversal of voltage difference.
Na moves into the axon.
K moves out of the axon.
Reestablishment of resting potential: Na-K pump
Chapter 12 Endocrine
Nerves system - nerve impulse
hormones action certain cells: Target cells
Endocrine control slower than NS Control.
Pituitary Gland: Master Gland
Anterior Pituitary: 6 hormones
ACTH (Adrenal cortex)
TSH Thyroid Stimulating hormones
FSH Follicle stimulating hormones
CH Luteinzing hormones
PRL Mammary Glands
GH Growth Hormones
Hypothalamus Posterior pituitary
Pancreas: Endocrine and exocrine gland.
Adrenal Gland: medulla release epinephrine. Secrete 2 glycocorticoids and mineralcorticoids.
Thyroid metabolic rate/Decrease calcium level.
Parathyroid Gland: Increase calcium
Sex Hormones: Testes/Ovaries
gastrin, secretion, cck, GI tract hormones.
Function of Glucagon and Insulin
Glucagon: Causes breakdown of glycogen to glucose. Raise glucose in blood.
Insulin: Promotes entry of glucose into cells lowers glucose in blood.
Chapter 13 Digestive
Nutrient: Fuel cell activities, build cell components.
Cells obtain nutrients from blood.
Blood obtains nutrient from digestive system or storage pools.
Mouth to Anus = GI Tract
Layers: Mucosa, Innermost layer, nutrient pass, sabmucossa,connective tissue, :Lymph, blood vessels, nerves.
- Salivary Gland, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas.
Mechanical processing: Chewing, motility: Mixes and propels. (Peristalsis) which continues to lower esophageal sphincter.
Secretion: Fluid, bile, digest enzymes, mucus, acid bases hormones.
Teeth, tongue, saliva.
salivary gland: sublingual, submendibular, parotid.
Bicarbonate: Ph 6.5-7.5
inhibits bacteria growth.
burning chest, heart burn, acid coming back up.
1-3 L capacity
Digestion: acid assists, protein digestion.
Endocrine Function Gastrin
HCI Acid; ph 1-2
pepsinogen pepsin mucus fluid, vitamin B12.
Endocrine: Stimulates gastrin emptying, especially HLC secretion.
2 primary: digestion and absorption
Digestion of carb,lipids,proteins, enzymes.
Absorption of 95% of nutrients in small intestine.
Part of (SI): 3 Segments
Eliminates waste & Absorption of water.
Anus controls elimination
Accessory Digestive Organs
Pancreas: Digestions of enzymes
Proteases --> proteins
Amylases --> CHO
Lipase --> Lipids
Concentrates and stores bile
deliver bile to small intestine
Metabolic functions: Vitamin storage: A,D,E,K
Storages: Glucose: glycogen.
Digestive function: Makes bile
Vitamin storage: A,D,E,K
Storage glucose: Glycogen
synthesize & Stores lipids
Inactivates: Ethyl, Alcohol, drugs, hormones.
Coverts ammonia to urea/waste products and destroys old RBC's.
Gastrin: Stimulates release of gastric juice.
Secretin: Stimulates pancreas to release water, bicarb.
CCK: digestion enzymes from pancreas: bile form gallbladder.
Essential Amino Acids
9 not produced by body
11 made by body
66% of American overweight
HDL = good cholesterol
LDL = Bad cholesterol
Bulimia: binge and purge
GI Tract disorder
Gerd & Reflux can = Esophagitis
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