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By the 1820s, what had happened?

Nationalism was replaced by Sectionalism

What were 2 reasons why people were so drawn to Jackson?

1. Hero of the Battle of New Orleans
2. Rags to riches- first "log cabin" president

What were the three issues that Jackson believed in?

1. Power of the people
2. Power of the presidency
3. Power of the federal government over the states (a surprise!)

How did political change happen in America?

Property and religious requirements to vote were eliminated in most states (began in western states)

What is suffrage?

the right to vote

What is a Caucus? Is it democratic?

a small group which chooses people to run for office. This is not very democratic

Who was the first political convention for and when did it happen?

For Democrats- in 1832

Who couldn't vote?

Blacks, women, and Native-Americans

Spoils System "To the victor belongs the spoils."

Jackson replaced government employees with his supports. This gave more people the opportunity to serve in government.

Jackson's Use of Presidential Power

Vetoed 12 bills during his two terms which was more than all the 6 presidents before him combined (9 total)

Tariff Issue

1828- Congress passes very high tariff on goods from Europe

Who hated the tariff of 1828 and who loved it?

North loves the high tariff
South hated it- called it the "Tariff of Abominations"

States' Rights

John C. Calhoun (vice-president at the time) writes "Exposition and Protest" (big secret who wrote it)

Exposition and Protest

Says that a state has the right to declare a law made by Congress unconstitutional and null and void (the tariff!!!)

Webster-Hayne Debates

Daniel Webster(Massachusetts) vs. Robert Hayne(South Carolina)

Who defended what in the Webster-Hayne debate?

Hayne defended the right of states to declare laws unconstitutional-Webster defended the Constitution and the Union arguing that nullification would cause an end to the Union

What was Webster's famous quote?

"Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and inseparable!"

Jefferson Day Dinner

April 30, 1830

What did Andrew Jackson say in his toast at the Jefferson Day Dinner?

"Our federal union; it must be preserved!"

How did Calhoun respond?

By saying, "The union next to our liberty, most dear?"

What happened to Calhoun?

Won election to the Senate from South Carolina then resigned.

Who became vice-president after John C. Calhoun?

Martin Van Buren

What happened in 1832?

Congress passed a new tariff which was lower, but still not low enough for south

What was the Nullification Act

This was when the South Carolina legislature meets and declares Tariff of 1832 unconstitutional (threatens to secede from union)

Who got both sides together?

Henry Clay

Who persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill?

Andrew Jackson

What was the Force Bill?

President could use armed forces to uphold laws made by Congress. (South Carolina breaks down)

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