The Hartford Convention was a meeting of New England Federalists held in Hartford Connecticut in the winter of 1814-15. These Federalist opposed the War of 1812 and held the convention to discuss and seek redress by Washington for their complaints and wrongs that the felt had been done. Many of these complaints were manifestation of their fears of being overpowered by states in the south and west. The Hartford Convention was an example of the growing issue of Sectionalism and was another event in the approaching end of the Federalist Party.
Sectionalism is disunity between the states based on location and lifestyle as a result of their location. George Washington warned against sectionalism in his Farewell Address. In the early years of the United States sectionalism developed between the agrarian southern states and the industrial northern states. The Sectionalism would cause much friction between the states on many issues and the issues that would cause this sectionalism to develop would make it a primary cause of Civil War.
The Industrial Revolution was a period during the 19th century where much of the technology involving the production and manufacturing of goods were improved in the U.S. The improvement of this technology made industry more efficient and encouraged people to become involved with industry. The further industrialization of the North also increased sectionalism between the north and south. The Industrial Revolution gave America the jump-start into industry that it needed to become the industrial powerhouse it would one day be.
The Cotton Gin was a machine made by Eli Whitney in 1793 that separated cotton seeds from the fiber. The Cotton Gin made the process of collecting cotton much more efficient and raised its profitability. This resurgence in the production of cotton fed the industrial revolution and revived slavery in the south.
Interchangeable parts went along with the method of assembly line production. Interchangeable parts were machine made and ergo were identical. Having interchangeable parts meant that the same part would fit in multiple products because the pieces were all the same. Interchangeable parts fed the industrial revolution especially in the North. They also sparked the beginnings of mass-production and gave the North and advantage in the production of goods during the Civil War.
The Lowell System was employed in mills during the Industrial Revolution especially in New England. The Lowell System involved employing young women to work and often live on mills, for low wages, before they were married. These women had few privileges and were monitored the majority of the time. Despite the low wages, few privileges, and dangerous, arduous work, the Lowell System was a step forward in women's rights because it had been very rare for a woman to work and earn wages beforehand.
The Adams-Onis Treaty
The Adams-Onis Treaty was made between America and Spain in 1819. It solved many land disputes between the two nations and gave Florida to America. The treaty set a new boundary line for America as a way to solve the land disputes. The treaty was considered an achievement for American diplomacy and eased tensions between Spain and America.
Nationalism is pride in one's nation and a desire for their nation to succeed. In the years following the War of 1812 Nationalism in the United States increased. The nation became more unified and the effects of this desire for success influenced many American institutions including its economy and trade.
The Monroe Doctrine was created by James Monroe in 1823 in an attempt to protect American lands from further settlement. It declared that the time for colonization was at an end and went on to say that any attempts to further colonize the Americas would be seen as animosity towards the United States. The Monroe Doctrine was born from and perpetuated nationalism in the United States and would be looked to by future presidents.
Westward expansion was the increasing colonization of American territory in the west during the 19th century. Westward expansion was fueled the acquisition of land further west in the Louisiana Purchase and propagated the concept of Manifest Destiny in America. Westward Expansion would spread Americans further across the country and be the first American population of the high populous Western Cities of today.
The American System was first proposed by Henry Clay as a way to strengthen America during its time of prosperity after the War of 1812. The American System was very similar to economic plans proposed by Alexander Hamilton. It proposed creating a new protective tariff, reinstituting a Bank of the United States, and the construction of more reliable methods of travel (i.e. roads, railroads, and canals).The American system would make travel and the shipment of goods throughout the U.S. easier. Though the states would be given the responsibility of creating the roads and therefore the new system of travel could be disorganized at times. The Panic of 1819 occurred as a result of irresponsibility within the National Bank.
Tariff of 1816
The Tariff of 1816 was a protective tariff that was instituted as a part of Clay's American System. This tax on imports was reminiscent of the Protective Tariff of Hamilton's presidency that taxed imported goods. The Tariff of 1816 was well received by the public; it also encouraged American production and manufacturing and fueled the economic prosperity during the Era of Good Feelings.
Panic of 1819
The Panic of 1819 was a period of economic hard times that fell upon the U.S. in 1819. The Panic of 1819 was the result of irresponsibility within the Bank of the United States and the irresponsibility of those who used it causing severe deflation of the dollar. The Panic of 1819, a time when many people were imprisoned for debt, put a spotlight on the cruelty of imprisoning debtors.
Era of Good Feelings
The Era of Good Feelings was a period of relative economic prosperity and peace in the U.S. following the War of 1812. The Era of Good Feelings was fueled by Nationalist sentiments among American citizens. It set the stage for many economic and domestic expansions including westward expansion.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Gibbons v. Ogden was a case presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall. The case concerned whether or not New York could grant a private business a monopoly over trade via waterways between New York and New Jersey. Marshall ruled against it, mentioning the fact that Congress is in charge of issues involving interstate commerce. This ruling dealt a blow to states rights in the continuing struggle over the power of the states and the federal government.
McCullough v. Maryland
McCullough v. Maryland was a law suit in 1819 that concerned Maryland's right to tax a branch of the Bank of the United States. Chief Justice John Marshall denied the state of Maryland this right, once again using judicial review. This ruling gave the Federal Government more power over the states in the continuous power struggle.
The Missouri Compromise was made in 1820 as an attempt to calm tensions over disagreements between the North and the South over the future of slavery. The South felt that it needed to add more slave states in order to keep its power and Congress and prevent the abolishment of slavery. The Compromise included admitting Maine as a Free State and Missouri as a slave state. It was also proclaimed that Missouri and any lands below its bottom boundary could remain slave states while the rest of the territory above the boundary would be free. The South was upset by the difference in area that was proclaimed free in comparison to the land that was to use slavery. The Compromise that was supposed to ease tensions only strengthened them.
The Tallmadge Amendment was an attempt to stem the use of slavery in the U.S. particularly in Missouri. The Tallmadge Amendment demanded that no more slaves be brought into Missouri and that children born to slaves be gradually emancipated. The Tallmadge Amendment outraged both Southerners and pioneers expanding westward to Missouri and heated the conflict between the North and South.
Andrew Jackson was a hero of the War of 1812 known as 'Old Hickory' who was elected as president in 1828. He was wildly popular among the citizens of the U.S., especially those in the west, but caused a fair share of controversy during his presidency. He became known for the 'Tariff of Abominations', his use of the spoils system, and dismantling the Bank of the United States, among other things, and the controversy surrounding them. He also played a major role in the formation of both the Democrat and Whig political parties.
Henry Clay was one of the Great Triumvirate and was a Senator and Representative of Kentucky. He proposed the American System in the time of heightened Nationalism following the War of 1812, which would be quite effective for a time. During Andrew Jackson's presidency Clay often found himself at odds with the President. Opposition to Jackson would be a primary reason for the creation of the Whig political party, which Clay would lead.
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun, one of the Great Triumvirate, was a political theorist who was an advocate of slavery, nullification, and southern succession. Secretly he wrote The South Carolina Exposition protesting the Tariff of Abominations and urging that states nullify it. He was involved in and influenced many hot-button political issues at the time including slavery and the succession of the southern states.
Nicholas Biddle was the president of the Bank of the United States during Jackson's Presidency. Biddle held a large amount over America's economy and those in opposition of the Bank felt that both Biddle and the Bank were corrupt and unconstitutional. Biddle fought against Jackson's dismantling of the Bank up until the Bank expired. The consequences of Biddle's retaliation began a small financial crisis and gave those who had opposed the Bank in the first place vindication in their opposition.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the largely underdeveloped American Judiciary System. The Act gave the Supreme Court a chief justice, 5 Associate Justices, 3 Federal Circuit Courts, and the power to appeal a state decision that may be deemed unconstituational. The Act established the Judicial Branch as how we know it now, gave more power to the Federal Government, and allowed the new government to be able to do what was necessary to keep the new nation running.
Hamilton used the "necessary and proper" clause to authorized Congress to do whatever was necessary to carry out its enumerated powers: thus create a national bank of sorts. Wealthy American investors would fund the bank, allowing it to issue paper money and handle tax receipts/ other government funds. The national bank was a huge controversy as it gave a huge amount of power to the federal government, something anti-federalists feared. However, at the same time, it took care of national debt and set up the foundations for today's Department of Treasury.
The Excise Tax was a tariff on the manufacturing of an item, specifically whiskey. This helped Hamilton to achieve his goal of a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers, (as corn was too expensive to ship overseas so it was distilled into whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, but sparked anger from the farmers, rousing the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
1794 - Jay Treaty was established in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It gave the US full control of Northwest posts, while still allowing the British to continue trading in the area. It led to Pinckney's treaty because the Spanish feared an Anglo-American alliance. It was particularly unpopular with France. It aided to growing tension and opposition for the US, France, and Britain.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand (about quelling the growing tension between the US and French), but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. The Affair rouses American anger and resentment toward foreigners, especially the French. In addition, the US deployed a navy to combat the French seizure of US ships.
Edmond Charles Genêt. was a French diplomat who disagreed with the policy of neutrality and came to the U.S. in 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. Washington and Jefferson call for his removal, as he broke all rules of diplomacy. However, Genêt refuses and becomes a US citizen. This marked a continued French Beauregard of American rules and led to intensified feelings of distaste towards the French. In addition, caused the Alien and Sedition Acts to be passed.
The treaty between America and Spain in 1795 which granted America practically all they demanded, including all land east of the Mississippi (excluding Florida), and opened New Orleans and the Mississippi River to American traders. The Treaty established friendship between the US and Spain, as well as give more access of land to America.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These resolutions were a direct response from the Alien and Sedition acts. Drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, they claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the U.S. Constitution and were a misuse of government power. These resolutions affirmed the principle of nullification: a state could consider any act of Congress null and void. The resolutions voiced the disagreement between more federal and state power, but the issue died quickly.
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington's Farewell Address took place in 1792 when Washington left office after two terms. His speech outlined the issues that America must watch out for (including foreign involvement/ alliances, factions, and sectionalism). In order for America's unity and strength to last, we must do our best to battle against those issues and stay connected. Washington's address served as a warning, and a very prophetic one at that. However, America still survived as a country.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress. This gave the Judicial Branch a major power, allowing them equal involvement in the government and more organization. Without Judicial Review, there would be many of unsolved court cases and possibly unfair laws.
A period of brutal conflict in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, lasting from 1993 to 1801, led by Toissant L'Ouverture (an African Slave). It led to the elimination of slavery and the establishment of Haiti as the first republic ruled by people of African ancestry. Africans were able to defeat the British, Spanish, and almost the French (who recaptured the colony after a few years)
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America (eliminating the French threat in America), Jefferson gains power, the Federalists lose power, the U.S. gains control of the New Orleans port and the Mississippi trade route and America doubles its size.
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor that aggravated US/ British tension and was a major cause of the War of 1812.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. However, it did not hurt French/ British economy as much as hoped- America's trade was simply replaced. Rather, it hurt the national economy. It's repealed and replaced with the Non-intercourse Act of 1809
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored peace and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war ended the Federalist party, strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Declaration of Independence
A document drafted by the second Continental Congress in 1776 declaring the colonies independent from Great Britain's rule; written by Thomas Jefferson. Said 'all men are created equal', but this didn't apply to women or blacks; listed grievances against the King and threats to their 'inalienable rights'. Led to the American Revolution as a need for the colonists to assert their independence; united Americans under a common goal.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution adopted during the second Continental Congress in 1781 during the revolution. It aimed to fix the immediate problems that the colonies faced after the end of Great Britain's rule, such as their unhappiness with taxation. It ultimately failed as a government because it gave too much power to the states, and Congress did not have the ability to tax, regulate trade, or control currency. It led to the writing of the Constitution to fix the problems of the nation and establish a more stable government. People realized that they would have to relinquish some power to the government in order to function as a nation.
A rebellion of backcountry farms in western Massachusetts who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures. Led by Daniel Shays in 1786; they demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers. Highlighted the need for a strong national government instead of the one set up by the Articles of Confederation. Although the rebellion was squashed, it ignited fear in the upper class that more rebellions such as these would happened, and called serious attention to the faults of the Articles.
One of the most important pieces of legislature passed under the Continental Congress; established the process for which new states would be added to the Union; prohibited slavery in the northwest territories; set up a process for creating governments and plotting land in the new states, involved the ways they would be taxed to make money for the national government. Important because of the ways it established adding a new state to the nation and contributed to the country's wants to expand further westward by setting up more states.
A convention in Annapolis, Maryland in 1786 that met to discuss the debatable issues of commerce, trade and navigation in the nation. However because of poor attendance (only 5 states were represented), Alexander Hamilton wrote up a proposition for another Constitutional Convention the following year, which was the most significant outcome of the meeting.
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They planned to revise the Articles of Confederation to make it stronger but, finding too many problems, it instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution. It is important because it was the meeting of men that drafted the Constitution, which became the long-lasting outline of government for the United States
A plan proposed by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention that said that Congress should be divided with bicameral legislature, and representation in Congress should be determined by state population. This largely favored the southern states because they had larger populations (slaves) and would get more representation. Important because it became the form of representation in the House of Representatives.
New Jersey Plan
A plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention that said Congress should be composed of one legislative body (single-chamber) with each state having only one vote. Complete opposite of the Virginia plan. Created conflict between the north and the south, because the south wanted more representation. This became the form of representation in the Senate.
The compromise in Congress that decided on bicameral legislature where one section (the House of Representatives) would have representation based on population (which pleased the Southern states) and another section (the Senate) would have equal representation from each state (which pleased the Northern states). This became the set up of the legislative branch of Congress that exists today.
During the Constitutional Convention, the north and south couldn't agree on whether or not to include slaves in a state's population. The north argued that including slaves was unfair and would guarantee the Southern states more representation, whereas the south argued that they were part of the population and should thus be included. A compromise was reached that counted slaves as 3/5 of a person. This decision was important because it politically acknowledged that slaves were not people, but still didn't count for anything. Also showed the vast differences between the opinions of the north and the south (beginnings of sectionalism)
The division of power between the central government and the state governments. After the Articles of Confederation people saw that it was essential to share the power with the central government and not just give it all to the states. This idea was important in the Constitution and remains important today; helped establish strength as a country by giving certain powers to Congress and others to states.
Checks and Balances
The policy set up in the Constitution that allows certain branches of government to have powers over other branches so as to avoid one section becoming all powerful. ex: Legislative branch can pass bills but Executive branch can veto those bills. Important because it keeps a government (or a specific section of it) from becoming too powerful.
Separation of Powers
The division among powers in the Constitution between the legislative, executive and judicial branch. This policy tries to insure that the government won't become too powerful, which was important to the colonists as they tried to avoid a tyranny like the had with Great Britain. It is a policy still in place today.
Three Branches of Government
The three branches of government (as established in the Constitution and as they still exist today) are the legislative, which makes the laws; the executive, which execute the laws; and the judicial, which interpret the laws. Effective because it divides the power three ways, without letting it become centered, and gives different duties to each section.
A group of representatives that are picked to represent states in a vote for the president and vice-president. Each member of the electoral college represents a state, and the votes they make reflect the votes made and the decisions of their state. It was originally created to keep the 'uneducated masses' from voting for the president, and consisted of only wealthy educated white males.
A series of anonymous essays written by Hamilton, Madison and Jay that were written in a New York newspaper and aimed to try and convince people that of the benefits of the Constitution. They elaborated on its strengths in comparison to the Articles, and tried to get the states to ratify the Constitution. These essays had a great effect and convinced the final states to ratify, which was important because it then meant that there were no states opposed to the Constitution, which made it that much stronger.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments made to the Constitution that protected and guaranteed people's inalienable and natural rights, like freedom of speech/religion, right to bear arms, etc. It gave the states all the power that the Constitution did not give to Congress, which was a key amendment. The Bill of Rights was essential in getting the final states to ratify the Constitution, as it convinced them that they would be safe and still have rights as individual citizens. These were the first of many amendments added to the Constitution, and were important in making the Constitution unanimously ratified.
A long process because of the many disagreements between the Federalists and AntiFederalists in the writing and signing of the Constitution. Eventually, with the addition of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution was sent out to all the states and was voted on and approved as the formal Constitution of the United States. The ratification allowed all states to be in agreement, and the Constitution was set in place as the outline of government until present day.
Battle of Tippecanoe
When William Henry Harrison urged the Indians to sign away 3 million acres of Indian territory, they were met with Indian anger and opposition. Chief Tecumseh banned with British to protect the land, but his brother decided to wage an attack on the "white menace". Harrison and his men retaliated, burning down the Indian village and discovering British weapons within. The Battle of Tippecanoe roused War Hawks' cry for war against the British as well as caused anger and distrust towards them.
Burning of Washington D.C.
As apart of the Chesapeake Campaign, the British landed in the Chesapeake Bay and made their way to Washington D.C., burning it to the ground. It was retaliation from the battle of York in 1813, when Americans burned and looted. It didn't have the desired affect, but rather distracted the British, and roused unity and opposition towards the British menace.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S. Jackson's popularity was increased, the British were driven back, and it marked the very last battle of the War of 1812.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the prewar status. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border. It didn't deal with the many causes of the War of 1812 (such as impressment), but made way for nationalism, and the Era of Good Feelings: a period of economic growth and prosperity.
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Two abolitionists and suffragettes, who came from South Carolina in an aristocratic family. Both sisters became Quaker abolitionists. In 1835, Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings. In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke also supported women's suffrage. The sisters roused support for both of their reform causes, helping move them forward.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He got word out about the cause, roused support for it, and helped move the reform cause forward.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation. He was responsible for education reform and many of his ideas shaped educations as we know it today. He also helped with other reform movements along with Dorthea Dix.
The general term for the privateers in the employ of the ruler of the Barbary empire spanning the northern African coast, who plundered American, French, and British ships alike, with their king demanding protection money in return for a particular countries safe passage. Their threat to American shipping prompted action, and their defeat by the hands of the American navy brought a level of respect to America abroad.
One of the two first political parties of the American government, the federalists believed that the key to American prosperity was to have a strong central government. They generally supported laws and ideas which were geared towards the industrialization of America and those which would strengthen the American upper class. They identified most with the Tories, who supported the British during the American revolution, and eventually became the modern Democrat party.
The party which opposed the Federalists, this party believed that states should the majority of political power in America, and the central government should be kept weak. They generally favored laws and ideas which supported the lower class, provided liberty, and helped agriculture. They identified most with the revolutionaries of France, and eventually morphed into the modern Republican party.
Lewis and Clark
Two American explorers tasked with the job of surveying the recently purchased Louisiana Purchase, after the land was bought from Napoleon Bonaparte. They were helped along through their trip by Sacajawea, and were the first Americans to reach the Eastern coast.
A native American who joined the Lewis and Clark expedition on its journey to the Western coast of the New World, providing diplomatic protection from Indians and translation service.
Democratic-republican politicians who advocated war with Britain, and put on the pressure to start the War of 1812. They were mostly young, and concerned with trying to oppose the British on account of Americas bumpy heritage with them. The war won unprecedented respect for America.
America's 3rd President, Jefferson was an Anti-Federalist who was best known for his efforts to keep America out of conflict, and his penning of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions alongside Madison. He was also in charge of the American embargo and has both the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expeditions as part of his resume.
The leader of the Native American coalition, who worked together with his brother Tenskwatawa to fight back against American westward expansion. They formed a widespread Indian confederacy, and convinced their brethren to give up certain vices in order to better prepare for the fight. Tenskwatawa was killed in a foolish charge at the Battle of Tippecanoe, while Tecumseh died alongside British troops at the Battle of the Thames.
the first head of the American treasury, Alexander was the primary supporter of the whiskey excise tax, and so was indirectly responsible for the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. he was a staunch federalist, and at one point suggested warring with France after the XYZ Affair.
A very skilled judge, Marshall was a hold over from the now defunct federalist party. He was responsible for flexing the central governments muscles in several cases by citing the powers dictated to the federal government by the constitution. Such cases include Cohen v. Virginia, and McCulloh v. Maryland, the first of which allowed him to assert supreme court power over state supreme, and the second being a case of states trying to tax the federal bank. Gibbons v. Ogden, where in New York tried to give a monopoly for control of its shipping with New Jersey, was struck down when John pointed out that only the federal government could handle interstate matters according to the constitution.
American anti Slavery Society
An organized group with the goal of deporting freed African slaves to a colony in Africa, which was built in Liberia, and reached a population of 5 million in only 40 years. It was appealing to racist whites because it distanced them from blacks.
Thomas Jefferson's personal political party, which supported revolutionary France and was the later incarnation of the anti-Federalists. It opposed most of President Hamilton's measures and laws, and was focused primarily on limiting the powers of the federal government.
Apologists View of Slavery
The apologists view of slavery was that it was not a necessary evil, but a positive good. They pointed out how slaves were properly fed, clothed, and taught scripture once they had been brought to America, with their lives universally improved in comparison to their hungry, godless existences in the dangerous lands of Africa. Apologists pointed out examples of slaves being treated like an extension of the slaveholders own family, and compared the support earned from this surrogate family to the sink-or-swim wage slavery of the north, where a freedman had to get by on their own with little companionship or help in the impersonally industrial economy.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
An anti-slavery fiction book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, and was one of the catalysts of the American Civil War. Abraham Lincoln actually attributed part of the blame on the author, referring to her as "the little lady who started this great war." It sold the record number of copies of the decade, and the second most of the century.
One of the leaders of the American war for independence, George Washington was the head of the American spy system and the American military. After the war, he was unanimously elected President of the United States, and resigned after two terms. During his tenure as President, Washington formed the First Cabinet, and delivered the first inaugural address in America, both traditions that have stayed with the US. In addition, he was responsible for the quelling of Shay's Rebellion, which prompted his administration to replace the old Articles of Confederation with the new Constitution. He presided over the Constitutional Convention which drafted and ratified the new Constitution, still in use today.
the Cabinet of trusted heads of state appointed by George Washington after his inauguration as President of the United States. The Cabinet was composed of Henry Knox as Secretary of War, Edmund Randolph as Attorney General, Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury, and Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State. They were responsible for the military, the law system, the treasury and federal funding, and diplomatic relations, respectively.
William Henry Harrison
A war hero from the Battle of Tippecanoe, and Americas 9th President, who had both the shortest term and the longest inaugural speech in American history. His speech was nearly 2 hours long, despite being edited for length, and he was inaugurated in the rain with no coat or hat on. He contracted a cold 3 weeks later, which developed into pneumonia due to his busy schedule, which prevented any proper rest.
One of the Founding Fathers, Henry was the one to give the famous "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech. He was a member of the Virginia quorum which enacted the Stamp Act Resolutions, thus catalyzing the American Revolution. He was one of the leaders of the Anti-Federalists Party, and opposed the United States Constitution on the grounds that it gave too much power to the federal government, and so was one of the politicians to demand the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
America's 2nd President, and a Federalist. He was the Vice-President of George Washington for both of his terms, and had to deal with the Quasi-War during his own administration. He settled the conflict peacefully, and also was the one to sign the Alien and Sedition Acts. He had policies of strengthening the federal government, as well as strengthening the Army and the Navy.
One of the founding members of the Democratic-Republican Party, alongside Thomas Jefferson, He was the 4th President of the United States, and is considered the "Father of the Bill of Rights." As Jefferson's Secretary of State, Madison was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. During his own Presidency, he attempted to enforce an embargo on the warring nations of France and Britain, but ultimately found that he had overestimated their reliance on American trade, and so the American economy was effectively locked out of its 2 biggest markets for several years. Madison eventually declared war on Britain and France, thus commencing the War of 1812. the general difficulties of the American military in the war convinced Madison that a stronger central government was needed if America was to survive any sort of military conflict.
Invented the cotton gin, which multiplied the amount of cotton that can be cleaned, which allowed American cotton production to skyrocket
a British mechanic who immigrated to the U.S. after memorizing the designs of textile mill machines; he started the first textile mill in the U.S. and later developed the Rhode Island System.
5th president of the US, acquired Florida for the US in 1819; part of the Missouri Compromise in which Missouri was declared a slave state; declared US opposition to European interference in the Americas
John Quincy Adams
president of the United States, wasn't very tactful, not a very well-liked president; won over Jackson in a difficult decision where even though Jackson won popular vote, Adams won presidency; because of this he faced a lot of opposition and was unable to make very many big decisions; expanded the nations borders; authorized the Monroe Doctrine