Biology Cellular Respiration
Terms in this set (29)
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
organisms that get energy by consuming food.
How do most autotrophs produce food?
The process by which an organism provides its cells with oxygen so energy can be released from digested food. Respiration takes place in all living cells at all times.
Energy processing factories. , Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production.
Two steps of Respiration that take place in the mitochondria of all cells.
Electron Transport Chain
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
where proteins are made.
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities.
Occurs in the Cytoplasm. First step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Electron Transport Chain
The 3rd step of cell respiration and produces the largest amount of ATP.
The three-carbon product of glycolysis.
Glucose + Oxygen----------------------->
Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
--Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm.
--Forms 2 pyruvate molecules
--Uses 2 ATP
--Forms 4 ATP
--Forms 2 NADH
--Glucose + 2 ATP ----> 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 NADH
--Only 2 ATP are netted.......NOT 4.
(It uses 2 to make 4)
The Krebs Cycle
--Occurs in the Mitochondria
--Series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide.
Acetyl Coenzyme A
Breaks down each pyruvate into:
--Releases 1 ATP
--Releases 4 NADH
--Releases 1 FADH2
the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen.
The process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen., Respiration that requires oxygen.
the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen., the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work.
adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups.
electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP.
the reduced form of FAD; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration, gives up electrons to the electron transport chain. , An energy carrier that transport less energy than NADH but more than ATP.
Electron transport chain
Final step of cellular respiration.
Occurs in the mitochondria.
Produces the most ATP.
Oxygen is used
. Produces 32 ATP's.
Produces 6 H2O's.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce.
Anaerobic ATP-forming pathway. Pyruvate from glycolysis is degraded to acetaldehyde, which accepts electrons from NADH to form ethanol; NAD+ needed for the reactions is regenerated. Net yield: 2 ATP.--Yeast and bacteria.