Unit 22 Medications Used for Gastrointestinal System Disorders
Terms in this set (31)
Amebiasis- being infected with amebae. The disease is generally characterized by dysentery with diarrhea, weakness, prostration, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Helminthiasis- a condition in which there is an intestinal infestation of parasitic worms.
Approximately two thirds of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori - H.Pylori.
In the united states, H.pylori is more prevalent among older adults, African Americans, Hispanics, and lower socioeconomic groups.
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium that is found in the gastric mucous layer or adherent to the epithelial lining of the stomach.
H.Pylori causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and up to 80% of gastric ulcers.
With aging, certain changes occur in gastrointestinal funcitoning.
The digestive system motion slows as muscle contractions become weaker.
Glandular secretions decrease, causing a drier mouth and a lower volume of gastric juices.
Atrophy of the mucosal lining may reduce the rate of nutrient absorption.
Other changes that generally occur are the following:
• teeth deteriorate
• taste buds decrease in functionality
• muscles associated with chewing weaken
• swallowing becomes more difficult.
• Peristalisis becomes slower.
The gastrointestinal system of the child differs from that of the adult.
The child who is not developing normally according to established growth parameters, such as height, weight, and head circumference, should be evaluated for gastrointestinal disorders.
Signs and symptoms such as constipation, rectal bleeding, hematemsis, jaundice, nausea, and vomiting usually indicate GI disorders.
Signs of dehydration
• irritable and lethargic
• skin turgor- loss of elasticity
• dry mucous membranes
• abnormal thirst
• decreased urine output; specific gravity elevated
• rapid respirations
• rapid pulse
Antacids are drugs that neutralize hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
They are used to relieve acid indigestion, gas and heartburn, and in the treatment of peptic ulcers.
Ideally, an antacid should neutralize large amounts of acid with a small does, should have long lasting effect, should not interfere with elecrolyte balance, and should not cause a secondary increase in gastric acidity.
The majority of antacids are classified as nonsystemic agents because they remain largely in the gastrointestinal tract.
Magnesium based antacids may cause diarrhea.
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Prevacid (lasoprazole): delayed release capsule, 15 mg once daily
Stimulant laxatives, which act by irritating the intestinal mucosa or nerves in the intestinal wall.
docusate sodium - Colace
Type: stool softener
phenolphthalein - Ex-Lax
Onset: acts in 6 to 8 hours
Antidiarrheal Agents - Special Consideration
Lomotil is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity, severe liver disease, pseudomembraneous, enterocolitis, glaucoma, or electrolyte imbalance, and children under 2 years of age.
Use caution in patients with hepatic disease, renal disease, ulcerative colitis, and during pregnancy and lactation.
Lomotil is a schedule 5 controlled substance.
This medication should not be used with MAO inhibitors because a hypertensive crisis may occur.
loperamide HCl - Imodium
Protozoa rival worms as the worlds leading cause of disease and although there has been great improvement.
In worldwide sanitation, developing countries continue to have a high incidence of parasitic disease.
Travel and military service often expose Americans to such protozoal diseases as malaria, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis.
Although not widespread in the US, the organism that cuase this disease are becoming increasingly resistant to the drugs used in treating the disease.
Trichomonisis is primarily a disease of the vagina, although it can be present in the male urethra and the rectum of either sex.
Infection by Trichomonas vaginalis is characterized by a thin, yellow, malodorous discharge and puritus.
Giardiasis is caused by the flagellate Giardia lamblia, which inhabits the small intestine.
Many hosts are asymptomatic to the organism, which is increasingly found in the US as a result of trave to and from other countries.
Ambiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is transmitted by ingestion of mature cysts.
Colonies develop in the intestinal tract, causing diarrhea and abdominal pain in many who are infected by the organism.
hydroxychloroquine sulfate - Plaquenil
GI distress, visual, disturbances, retinopathy, vertigo, nerve deafness, tinnitus
metronidazole - Flahyl
Amebiasis, Trichomoniasis, giardiasis
Oral - Trichomoniasis: 2 g in a single or divided dose - one day therapy.
Antiemetics are agents that prevent or arrest vomiting.
For the treatment of vertigo, motion sickness, and the nausea associated with use of antineoplastic agents and radiation.