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PSY 330 Final Exam -- Hobby
Terms in this set (229)
The three image conditions represent the
The scores on the questionnaire about body satisfaction represent the
The alternative explanation that participants in the very thin image condition had lower body satisfaction than other participants before they viewed the experimental images is ruled out because the researcher
randomly assigns participants to conditions
The alternative explanation that extraneous variables produced the different body satisfaction scores is ruled out bc the researcher
asked all participants to view 10 images for 1 minute each
Assume that the average variability of participants' body satisfaction scores is 1.0. Based on this, we can state that the effect of viewing very thin images compared to athletic images is
The use of very thin images and neutral images in this study represents
a partial replication of previous findings for the effects of viewing body images
When researchers use the multimethod approach they can reach comparable conclusions about a research question after using different methods to study it. Our confidence in these conclusions increases and the conclusions are said to have
One major purpose of conducting experiments is to decide whether a treatment or program effectively changes behavior. The second major purpose for doing experiments is to provide
definitive answers to theoretical questions
The factors that researchers control or manipulate in order to determine their effect on behavior are called the
In a study that investigates the effects of two different doses of a drug on memory performance, the drug doses represents the ________ variable and memory performance represents the _______ variable
When the three requirements for causal inference are met, an experiment is said to be
Two control techniques that allow researchers to rule out alternative explanations for an outcome are balancing and
holding conditions constant
A researcher has manipulated only one independent variable at two levels, has held constant as many other variables as possible and has balanced individual differences by using random assignment. The researcher is likely to be able to claim that the independent variable caused the observed changes in the dependent variable because the experiment is
Which of the following arises when the independent variable of interest and a potential independent variable are allowed to covary?
A researcher examined participants' memory following emotionally shocking events by manipulating whether participants viewed a violent or a nonviolent version of a video. The video in the two conditions was identical except for two seconds in which the violence variable was manipulated. That the video was identical except for the manipulation represents the control technique of
holding conditions constant in the experiment
The characteristics of the participants tested in an experiment are called individual differences variables. Individual differences among participants are controlled in an experiment by
balancing the individual differences across the conditions of the experiment.
Random assignment to conditions works to balance participants' individual differences across conditions of the experiment by
generating groups of participants that are equivalent, on average.
The goal of a random groups design experiment is to establish the independent variable as the cause of a differences in the dependent variable. The logic of accomplishing this involves
beginning with comparable groups, treating them differently, and ending with noncomparable groups.
The most common solution to the problem of forming comparable groups in the random groups design is
In addition to creating groups of equal size, an advantage of block randomization is that it
balances potential confoundings that occur during the time in which an experiment is run.
A researcher randomly assigns one classroom to a new teaching method and a second classroom to the control condition (the regular teaching method). This researcher faces the potential problem of confounding due to
An instructor randomly assigns two sections of his course to an experimental condition (new teaching method) or control condition (regular teaching method). Students in the 9:30 section receive the experimental treatment ans students in the 1:30 section participate in the control condition. At the end of the semester the instructor's tests reveal that students in the 9:30 section had higher test scores than students in the 1:30 section, based on a test of statistical significance. Based on this summary, we can state that
The results are uninterpretable because of intact groups
In order to conduct an experiment more efficiently a researcher tests groups of participants in several small groups. The sizes of the groups differ b/c of differences in participants' availability at different times. The different sizes of the groups represent a potential
extraneous variable problem
When participants begin an experiment but fail to complete it, the internal validity of the experiment can be threatened. Which of the following types of subject loss poses the most serious threat the internal validity?
the loss is selective in that some characteristic of the participants that is related to the outcome of the study is responsible
Subject loss (attrition) poses a problem for a random groups design because
group equivalence established at the beginning of the experiment may be lost.
If participants know they have been given alcohol, they may expect certain effects such as giddiness or relaxation. The general term for such cues that guide participants' behavior in a study is
Placebo control groups and double-blind procedures are typically used to control for
demand characteristics and experimenter effects
Which of the following is the best way to determine whether the differences in means obtained in an experiment are reliable?
replicate the experiment
The three steps of data analysis are
check the data, summarize the data, and confirm what the data reveal.
After checking the data for errors and outliers, the next step in analyzing the data from a research study is to use
A researcher observes that the mean difference between two conditions 2.0 and the average variability in participants' scores is 4.0. The effect size, Cohen's D for this experiment is
Which of the following is a measure of the strength of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables that is independent of sample size?
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using measures of effect size?
Measures of effect size provide the best information about whether the effect of the independent variable is statistically significant.
The statistical tool that is used to analyze the results of several independent experiments is called
Two statistical methods that researchers use to determine whether an independent variable has a reliable effect on a dependent variable are
null hypothesis significance testing and confidence intervals
The nonsystematic variation due to differences among subjects within each group is called
A statistically significant outcome is an outcome that
leads us to reject the null hypothesis
A statistically significant outcome is an outcome that
has a small likelihood of occurring if the null hypothesis is true.
A researcher computes an inferential statistic to test the difference b/w mean scores for an experimental group and a control group. The probability of the obtained statistical value is 0.25, which is less than the alpha level of significance (p < .05). The researcher should
reject the null hypothesis of no difference between the experimental and control groups because the probability is so small; thus, the independent variable had a reliable effect on the dependent variable.
We can be confident that the population means differ for two conditions of an experiment when the confidence intervals for the two sample means
do not overlap
A researcher computes a .95 confidence interval for an experimental group to be 2.0-8.0, and computes a .95 confidence interval for a control group to be 0.0-4.0. Based on these confidence intervals, the researcher can state that
the results for the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable are inconclusive.
Our ability to draw appropriate conclusions based on the results of an experiment depends most of all on the
internal validity of the experiment
The problem of Type 1 and Type 2 errors occurs because
decision making based on inferential statistics depends on probabilities.
A Type 1 error occurs when the null hypothesis is really true and we claim
the independent variable did have an effect on behavior
When we conclude that an experiment does not provide sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, an independent variable does produce an effect, the inferential statistics problem is called a
Type II error
______ refers to the researcher's ability to make causal inferences regarding an experimental outcome and _____ refers to the researcher's ability to generalize the findings beyond the scope of the specific experiment.
Internal validity; external validity
When the results on an experiment are likely to be replicated if the procedures are repeated, we are more confident the findings are not due to chance factors. When this occurs we state our findings are
In a clinical trial involving a double-blind placebo control design a diet drug was shown to result in a statistically significant amount of weight loss. The sample size in this study was very large. The effect size reported for the drug was small (d=.10). Which of the following best describes the outcome of this clinical trial?
The drug had a reliable effect that will likely lead to a small weight loss for people who use it
When the findings of experiments testing the effectiveness and safety of drugs on animals are confirmed in clinical trials with people, the original findings of the animal research are shown to have
In what situation is it argues that external validity is irrelevant?
when the purpose of the experiment is to test a specific hypothesis derived from a theory
A researcher has read a research report indicating that a cartain medication has been found to be effective when tested on men. The researcher plans to do an experiment testing the effectiveness of the same medication but in his experiment both men and women will be tested. The researcher is planning to do a
partial replication of the experiment to test the external validity of the finding from the original experiment
Researchers found a relationship between insults and aggressive behavior for 5 year olds. If they want to test external validity of the conceptual relationship between insults and aggressive behavior for a sample of 35 year olds they should
use age appropriate insults and measures of aggression for the 35 year olds.
A cognitive psychologist wants to do an experiment testing the memory of elderly people. She has the following constraints: only 12 people available as a possible participants and the independent variable she is manipulating requires the use of separate groups for each condition. The psychologist has a reliable and valid pretest she plans to use. Which design is this psychologist likely to use?
matched groups design
When conducting an experiment using the matched groups design, the preferred pretest task (matching task) is
the same task that will be used as the dependent variable
Which of the following conditions would lead you to recommend against the use of a matched groups design and in favor of a random groups design?
a large number of participants from a homogeneous population is available
To differntiate experiments involving individual differences (subject) variables and those involving manipulated independent variables, those experiments involving individual differences (subject) variables are called
natural groups designs
The natural groups design represents an illustration of the general research approach that is called
Which of the following is the most critical problem in drawing casual inferences based on the natural groups design?
eliminating plausible alternative causes for the obtained relationship
The need to balance practice effects in the repeated measures design is analogous to the need to balance _________ in the independent groups design
In an independent groups design, a separate group of people serves as the control group. In the repeated measures design,
participants serve as their own controls
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why researchers choose to use the repeated measures design?
Repeated measures designs are generally less sensitive than are independent groups designs
The difference between repeated measurements to establish test-retest reliability and experiments using repeated measures designs is that in experiments with repeated measures designs
measurements are compared for different conditions of an independent variable
There can be no confounding by individual differences variables in the repeated measures designs because
the same participants are tested in all conditions of repeated measures designs
A researcher compares students' performance using a new learning strategy to their performance using the old strategy. Students' performance is first tested with the old strategy, followed by the new strategy. The results indicate that students perform better with the new strategy. These results
are uninterpretable due to the confounding with practice effects
Which of the following concerns leads researchers to balance practice effects in repeated measures designs?
Balancing allows researchers to control changes participants undergo with repeated testing in repeated measures designs
Counterbalancing is an important research technique because it is used to
average practice effects across the conditions of the experiment
A market researcher wants to test the effectiveness of three different types of advertisement. Participants will respond to many examples of each type of advertisement so that the researcher can determine each person's preference. What type of design is this researcher using?
complete repeated measures design
A researcher plans to conduct a complete repeated measures design in which the independent variable is manipulated using four conditions that vary the level of violence depicted in a photograph (non, low, medium, high). There are 10 photographs in each of the four conditions. Each participant will rate each photo once and therefore make a total of 40 ratings. If the researcher wishes to have 80 ratings for each photo, how many participants should the researcher recruit?
A researcher designs an experiment with six conditions but each condition takes only a short amount of time to administer. The researcher has the opportunity, therefore, to administer many trials of each condition in the experiment. Which of the following techniques is likely to be most effective for balancing practice effects?
A student is considering doing a complete repeated measures design experiment involving motor skills. The student's advisor has told him that people show a large initial improvement on the task followed by slow steady improvement after this initial change. The student must choose a technique for balancing practice effects. Which technique should the student NOT use?
When a participant in an experiment that involves the complete repeated measures design develops expectations about which condition should occur next in the sequence, the methodological problem that occurs is called
In the incomplete repeated measures design, the levels of the independent variable for each participant are perfectly confounded with the
order in which the levels were presented
Practice effects in the incomplete repeated measures design are balanced by
averaging across the results for all participants
Each of the three techniques that are used to balance practice effects in the incomplete repeated measures design conforms to a general rule that can be stated as
each condition must appear in each ordinal position equally often
A health psychologist conducts an experiment to test the effectiveness of four techniques for helping a person to relax. The psychologist has a limited number of people available to participate in the experiment and each relaxation technique takes some time to complete. The psychologist has decided, therefore, to use the incomplete repeated measures design with all possible orders to balance practice effects. What is the minimum number of participants with psychologist will need for this experiment?
When selected orders of conditions (Latin Square or random starting order with rotation) are used to balance practice effects in the incomplete repeated measures design
the number of selected orders will always be equal to some multiple of the number of conditions in the experiment
Compared to random starting order with rotation, an advantage of the Latin Square technique for selecting orders in the incomplete repeated measures design is that in the Latin Square
each condition precedes and follows each other condition exactly once
The additional step needed when analyzing the results in a complete repeated design is to
compute the mean score for each participant for each condition of the experiment
Repeated measures designs are more sensitive than random groups designs because the systematic variation due to individual differences is _____ the statistical anlayses
The problem of _____ occurs when the effects of the manipulation for a condition persist or carryover into the subsequent conditions in a repeated measures design
A repeated measures design experiment was done to test people's ability to solve problems that varied in difficulty at three levels (easy, moderate, and hard). The researcher used all possible orders to balance practice effects and so was able to determine that performance on the hard problems was better when they were preceded by a moderate difficulty problem than when they were preceded by an easy problem. Which of the following is a possible explanation of this finding?
The best solution when differential transfer is likely in an experiment is to
conduct a random groups design
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The design of this experiment would be described as a
3 x 2
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The natural groups independent variable in this experiment is
participants' personality: introversion or extraversion
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The random groups independent variable in this experiment is
level of arousal: high-caffeine, medium-caffeine, or no-caffeine
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The dependent variable in this experiment is
scores on the quantitative portion of the GRE test
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The means for the main effect of arousal level are
600, 600, and 600
Caffeine Condition Experiment: The means for the main effect of personality are
600 and 600
Caffeine Condition Experiment: These results would most likely indicate a statistically significant
interaction effect between arousal level and personality
Caffeine Condition Experiment: Based on these findings, the researcher can
neither (A) nor (B)
Interrogator Experiment: The design on this experiment would be described as a
Interrogator Experiment: Whether students were actually guilty or actually innocent of the crime in this experiment is a
random groups independent variable
Interrogator Experiment: Whether student interrogations believed their suspect to be innocent or guilty is a
random groups dependent variable
Interrogator Experiment: Ratings of effort used to obtain a confession are a
Interrogator Experiment: The means used to describe the main effect of Suspect Status are
6.0 and 9.0
Interrogator Experiment: The means used to define the main effect of Interrogator Expectation are
9.0 and 6.0
Interrogator Experiment: Assuming any nonzero difference is statistically significant, these results would most likely indicate a
all of these
Interrogator Experiment: based on these findings we can conclude that
suspect status and interrogator expectations are relevant variables
A complex design always involes
two or more independent variables
An experiment was done in which college students and elderly people were tested on three different cognitive tasks (spatial ability, memory and vocabulary). Thus, there were six conditions in the experiment. Which of the following best describes the overall design of the experiment?
When each level of one independent variable is combined with each level of a second independent variable, the combination of these two variables is called
In a complex factorial design described as a 2x4 there are
one independent variable with two levels and one independent variable with four levels
The number of conditions in a complex design described as a 2x3 is
Complex designs beyond the basic 2x2 design can be constructed
either by increasing the numbers of levels of each independent variable or by increasing the numbers of independent variables or by doing both
An experiment that is described as a 3x3x2 is one that has
three independent variables, two with 3 levels and one with 2 levels
In a 2x2 design with the independent variables, Anxiety Level (Low, High) and Type of Test (Easy, Hard), which of the following would be one of the four conditions created using factorial combination?
low anxiety -- easy test
The overall effect of each independent variable in a complex design is called a(n)
Which of the following effects occurs in a complex design when the effect of one independent variable differs depending on the level of a second independent variable?
In a complex design experiment researchers found that younger and older people performed equally well on a memory task when they were tested in the morning, but the younger people performed better than the older people when they were tested in the afternoon. The different effect of age at the two times of day represents a(n)
Which of the following statements best describes the effects that occurred in the 2x2 design outlined in the following table? The dependent variable is memory for the tasks (out of a possible ten), and you may assume that any nonzero difference is statistically significant.
There was an interaction effect of the type of task and the depression variables but no main effect of either independent variable
Gender of Confederate Experiment: There is an interaction effect in this experiment. Which of the following statements is appropriate for describing the interaction effect?
Both statements (A and B) are appropriate to describe the interaction effect
When a line graph is used to depict the results of a complex design, an interaction effect is indicated by
Which of the following patterns indicates that there has been no interaction effect in a complex design experiment when the results are plotted in a line graph?
when the lines are parallel
A student is trying to determine whether an interaction effect is present in an experiment with a 2x2 design. The data are summarized in a table. Which of the following methods should the student use to determine whether or not an interaction effect is present?
In a complex design in which there are three independent variables (A, B, C) it is possible to determine
three main effects, three two-way interaction effects (AxB, AxC, BxC), and the three-way interaction effect of AxBxC
A researcher designs a 2x2x complex design in which the first independent variable uses a random groups design, the second independent variable uses a natural groups design, and the third independent variable uses a repeated measures design. The researcher wants to have 20 participants in each independent groups condition. How many participants will she need to recruit?
Researchers interested in factors that influence people's performance determined that there was an interaction effect of stress level and the difficulty of the task. Performance on easy tasks was relatively better under high stress than under low stress; performance on difficult tasks was relatively better under low stress than under high stress. The researchers further found that the interaction effect of stress and difficulty was more pronounced for men than for women. The combined effect of the stress, difficulty, and gender independent variables represents a
triple or three-way interaction effect
The three potential sources of systematic variation in a complex design experiment involving two independent variables include
two main effects and an interaction effect
The analysis plan and interpretation of the results of a complex design experiment involving two independent variables depends on
whether or interaction effect is or is not obtained in the experiment
Researchers most often interpret the findings of a complex design by
all of these
A researcher did an experiment testing the effects of noise on students' ability to study effectively in different environments. There were three levels of background noise and two different environments so the design was a 3x2. The researcher obtained an interaction effect and decided to try to identify the source of the interaction effect by testing the effects of the noise variable separately at each level of the environment variable. Which of the following types of effects in the analysis of a complex design was the researcher testing?
simple main effect
The interpretation of main effects obtained in a complex design is critically dependent on whether
an interaction effect is present in the experiment
The overall analysis of variance of a complex design indicates that there is no interaction effect. Which of the following analyses should be done as the next step in analyzing this experiment?
A student has done an experiment involving a 4x2 design. The students' initial analysis of variance indicates that there was no statistically significant interaction effect in the experiment. The independent variable with four levels, however, did produce a statistically significant main effect. Which of the following analyses should the student do next to specify the source of this main effect more precisely?
comparisons of two means
Complex designs enhance researchers' ability to test hypotheses derived from theories because complex designs
make it possible to test both main effects and interaction effects
A common approach for resolving contradictory findings in research literature is to develop a theory for the source of different findings and
manipulate independent variables in a complex design to test the theory
When no interaction effect occurs in a complex design with two independent variables, we know the effects of each independent variable can be generalized
only across the two independent variables included in the experiment
When an independent variable such as task difficulty has been shown to interact with a second independent variable such as age, the generality (i.e., ability to generalize the findings) of the effect of the task difficulty variable is
The limits of the external validity of the effects of each of the two independent variables in a complex design are specified when
there is an interaction effect of the two variables and main effects of the variables may or may not be present
Which of the following is one of the reasons for being cautious about saying that an independent variable is an irrelevant independent variable if the variable did not have an effect in a single-factor experiment?
We know the independent variable could interact with another independent variable when used in a complex design
In a 2x2 complex design, one independent variable was shown not to have a statistically significant main effect on the dependent variable. Based on this, we can state that
for the variable to be considered relevant in this experiment, it must interact with the second independent variable
An interaction effect is likely to be uninterpretable when this problem in measurement occurs:
ceiling or floor effect
Which of the following represents the general measurement problem that occurs when performance reaches a maximum in any condition of an experiment?
The natural groups design is effective for establishing
correlations between individuals' characteristics and their performance on a task
There are several steps an investigator must take in carrying out the general procedure for drawing causal inferences based on the natural groups design. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps an investigator must take?
Select a second individual differences variable that would be expected to interact with the primary individual differences variable
A potential solution to the problem of drawing causal inferences based on the natural groups design is to use a complex design involving a natural groups design for an individual differences variable along with a manipulated independent variable. An important key to this potential solution is to
obtain an interaction effect of the individual differences variable and the manipulated independent variable
The relationship of the case study method to other research methods of investigation can best be described as
interrelated with and complementary to other methods
A cognitive psych did an intensive study of a person who had suffered an unusual brain injury. Which of the following methods did the psychologist use?
case study method
Which of the following is an advantage of the case study method?
Case studies are a source of ideas and hypotheses about behavior
Case studies have been used successfully to study individuals with brain disorders and individuals with exceptional memory abilities. These studies illustrate the use of the case study method to
study rare phenomena
In the nomothetic approach to the study of psychology, researchers generally conduct
studies of many individuals and use their average behavior to describe how people behave in general
The task confronting clinical psychologists can be described as trying to predict "what any one person will do." Actuarial predictions and group norms can be useful, but the clinician's tasks also illustrates the need for
Idiographic research, as represented by the case study method, has the potential to reveal
nuances and subtleties of behavior
The major difficulty with the case study method as a bases for drawing cause-and-effect conclusions is that
the simultaneous use of several treatments and failure to control extraneous variables prevent causal inference
Researchers are often unable to control extraneous variables when they use the case study method. This poor degree of control makes it difficult to use the case study method to
draw cause-and-effect conclusions about behavior
The most serious disadvantage of the case study method, because of internal validity issues, is the
possible problem of generalizing from a single individual
Which of the following characteristics is present in a typical case study?
several different treatments are often applied simultaneously
Problems of observer bias can arise in the context of a case study because
the researcher is often both observer and participant
Which of the following is not a source of bias in case studies?
the study of individuals with rare disorders
The problem of generalizing from a single individual arises when the case study method is used. This problem is likely to be most serious when the case has been selected from a population with
a high degree of variability
An extensive case study of an individual's visual system reveals several important findings. The ability of the researcher to generalize these findings to other individuals can be described as
not limited at all because the visual system of all organisms is the same
Case studies sometimes provide evidence for the "success" of a particular treatment. People often find reports of these successful treatments highly persuasive. People are persuaded by testimonial evidence primarily because they fail to
consider why the treatment would not work for them
The application of single-subject experimental designs to socially relevant problems has its origin in
behaviorism and the experimental analysis of behavior
Single-subject experiments differ from the case study method in that single-subject experiments
systematically contrast conditions within an individual whose behavior is being continuously monitored
Which of the following statements is true regarding the relative advantages of single-subject experimental designs as compared to multiple-group designs in clinical research?
Ethical problems arising from withholding a potentially beneficial treatment are less likely to arise in single-subject designs than in multiple-group designs
The first stage of a single-subject experiment is the baseline stage. The baseline stage provides information about
what behavior would be like if the treatment were not provided
Which of the following designs is used when the researcher focuses on the way behavior changes with the systematic introduction and withdrawal of the treatment?
An effective treatment is identified in an ABAB (reversal) design when
behavior after the intervention is different from the baseline in both the first and the second AB stages
A serious problem of interpretation can arise in the ABAB design when
performance in the second baseline period does not reverse, that is, return to the level in the initial baseline period
In a multiple-baseline design, the target behavior should change
just after the onset of the treatment
A researcher administers a treatment to four children in succession and monitors whether each child's behavior changes with the onset of the treatment. The researcher is using a(n)
What do each of the multiple baselines in the multiple-baseline design represent?
replications built into the design
The multiple baselines in multiple-baseline designs are usually established across each of the following dimensions except
one behavior for the same individual
In the multiple-baseline design across individuals, the treatment is administered
successively to one individual at a time
If the treatment is responsible for changing behavior in a multiple-baseline design across individuals, then an effect in the behavioral record will be seen
immediately after the application of the treatment in each individual
Problems in the interpretation of the results of a multiple-baselines design can arise when
changes in performance appear in one of the baselines before an experimental intervention
Which of the following is not an acceptable approach for addressing the problem of excessive baseline variability in single-subject designs?
dropping the results for those subjects whose baselines show excessive variability
Which of the following patterns represents an ideal baseline in a single-subject experimental design?
line with zero slope (horizontal line)
When the effect of an intervention in a single-subject design is in the same direction as a baseline trend (either increasing or decreasing), the researcher
cannot make firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the treatment
A clinical psychologist seeks to increase the amount of time a child is able to work on a task. In order to make an interpretation about the effect of treatment using an ABAB design, the least problematic initial baseline period would show
a decreasing trend in the amount of time the child spends working on the task
A psychologist develops a behavioral treatment to decrease the frequency of a child's temper tantrums. In order to make a casual interpretation about the effectiveness of the treatment using an ABAB design, the most problematic initial baseline period would show
a decreasing trend in the number of temper tantrums
When an intervention in a single-subject design is expected to have an effect in the same direction as a baseline trend (either positive or negative), the researcher should
use graphical analysis to prove that the change from the baseline trend is a "marked" change in the behavioral record
A frequent criticism of single-subject designs is that the external validity of these designs is limited. Which of the following does not refute this criticism?
Single-subject designs allow for successive administrations of the same intervention of the same person
Single-subject research designs have been criticized because
the external validity of the findings may be limited
The most critical defining characteristic of a true experiment is often seen to be a high degree of control over the
random assignment of participants to experimental conditions
One of the main ways that true experiments differ from quasi-experiments is that true experiments use
random assignment to conditions
The difference between a true experiment conducted in a natural setting and a quasi-experiment conducted in a natural setting is that the
none of these
When it comes to control over the conditions in the experiment or over the assignment of participants to groups in the experiment, a researcher in a natural setting is likely to have
less control than a researcher in a laboratory setting
The external validity of research done in natural settings is likely to be emphasized more when the research represents
social experimentation as the basis for large-scale changes
Research done in natural settings, as compared to research done in laboratory settings, is more likely to emphasize
In the context of conducting experiments in natural settings, random assignment of participants to conditions is
the fairest procedure if the effectiveness of the treatment is not known
A physician wants to test the effectiveness of a new allergy medication. The physician consults a researcher who regularly conducts clinical trials. The physician tells the researcher that she has a backlog of 100 patients she is treating effectively with the prevailing medication but who could potentially benefit even more from the new medication. The researcher recommends that the physician do a true experiment because of the availability of a(n)
waiting-list control group
In clinical trials involving tests of new medical treatments it may be extremely difficult to get patients to agree to be randomly assigned to either the treatment or the control group. In these situations researchers can use
A high school teacher conducted a test of a new approach to teaching math. Students were given a pretest when their math class began and a posttest at the end of the semester. The students' math performance increased. The teacher learned near the end of the semester, however, that in their science classes the students were using new computer software that included much of the math the teacher covered in his course. Which of the following threats to internal validity does the new computer software represent?
In a study of the effectiveness of a treatment for depression, a psychologist assesses the patients' symptoms of depression using a reliable questionnaire both before and for several months after treatment. During the same time period, the psychologist also assesses the symptoms of individuals who are randomly assigned to a waiting-list control group. The results indicate that individuals in both groups experienced a decrease in their symptoms over the 8-month time period of the study. One threat to internal validity the researcher should consider is
When individuals' performance on a posttest differs from their initial testing not because of a treatment but because of familiarity with the measure, a __________ threat to internal validity is likely.
A researcher trains observers to complete checklists while observing children's behavior on the schoolyard during recess. Over the course of the study, observers become more reliable in their observations. Any effect of a treatment in this study might be confounded with an _________ threat to internal validity.
Participants for a treatment group are chosen because they score very low on a pretest measure of performance. When their performance improves on the posttest, the researcher
should consider the possibility that statistical regression influenced posttest scores
The main problem associated with subject attrition during the course of a study is that
groups initially created to be equivalent may no longer be equivalent
When, from the outset of a study, differences exist between the kinds of individuals in one group of an experiment and those in another, there is a potential threat to internal validity called
Random assignment to conditions is used in true experiments to control which of the following threats to internal validity?
When events that occur during the course of a study have a different effect on one group of participants than on another, the possible threat to internal validity is
additive effects of selection and history
Students on two college campuses serve as treatment and control groups in a study investigating the effectiveness of an alcohol-abuse prevention campaign. A well-known student on one of the campuses dies of alcohol intoxication in the course of the study; students on the other campus did not learn of the student's death. The reaction of other students to the student's death on their campus could represent a potential threat to the internal validity of the study called
additive effects of selection and history
A threat to internal validity that occurs when information about the experiment is communicated between the different groups of participants known as
Contamination that results from communication of information between groups of participants in an experiment can lead to all of the following except
greater compliance with the instructions within each group
One threat to the internal validity of research that affects both true experiments and quasi-experiments is
experimenter expectancy effects
When people's performance changes because they are enthusiastic or energized by an intervention, the results of a study are likely affected by
An intervention in an office setting leads employees to be pleased that the management is interested in their welfare. If the employees' performance improves in this situation, the researcher should be concerned about potential
The hallmark of a quasi-experiment is
lack of random assignment of participants to conditions
An argument for the internal validity of quasi-experiments
can be made on the basis of supplementary data and logical analysis in addition to the results of the quasi-experiment itself
A psychologist examines the effect of a new therapy by first assessing patients' symptoms using a pretest, then administering eight weeks of therapy, and then administering a posttest. Based on this research design, the psychologists will be able to
neither (A) nor (B)
The one-group pretest-posttest design is
a bad experiment
A student used a nonequivalent control group design to examine the effectiveness of a computer module the library uses to introduce first year students to the library's resources. Which threat to internal validity could she potentially rule out by examining the pretest scores for both groups?
a selection threat
Which of the following threats to internal validity is controlled in the nonequivalent control group design?
A clinical psychologist examined the effect of a treatment designed to reduce the amount of cigarette smoking in the day room of a inpatient psychiatric facility. His treatment consisted of a several components to maximize its potential effectiveness (e.g., increasing the number of available activities; giving patients responsibility for care of the unit's plans, fish, etc.' the opportunity to exchange cigarettes for positive reinforcers). At the end of three months, his data indicated that cigarette smoking had declined significantly. Based on this, he is able to conclude that
neither (A) nor (B)
Even when pretest scores are the same, on average, for treatment and comparison groups in a nonequivalent control group design, the two groups may not be equivalent because
the fact that the two groups are equal on the pretest measure does not ensure that the groups are equivalent on other characteristics relevant to the study
When individuals in one group of a nonequivalent control group design experience natural changes at a faster rate than individuals in the other group, there is danger of a threat to internal validity called
additive effects of selection and maturation
When two groups in a nonequivalent control group design do not differ on the pretest, the researcher can conclude that
the two groups are equivalent only on the dependent variable measured on the pretest
If the residents, staff, and facilities of a nursing home where a quasi-experiment was done are likely to be different from those in other nursing homes, then the findings of the study are likely to lack
The effect of a treatment in a simple interrupted time-series design is indicated by
a clear discontinuity (abrupt increase or decrease) in the dependent variable at the point the treatment is administered
A simple interrupted time series design provides a reliable measure of the effect of the treatment because there are many observations both before and after the treatment. The major threat to internal validity in this design is
Strong evidence of a treatment effect in a time series with nonequivalent control group design is indicated by
discontinuity in the treatment group but not in the comparison group
Among the following designs, which allows researchers to rule out the most threats to internal validity?
times series design with nonequivalent control group
Program evaluation is a hybrid discipline whose professional activity
has as its basic goal providing feedback to providers of human service activities
Which of the following is NOT one of the four questions addressed in program evaluation?
final decision making
A human services agency was interested in finding out whether establishing a food distribution center in their community would be providing a service the community would use. Which of the following types of assessments in program evaluation would this agency find useful for this question?
assessment of needs
After implementing a program to improve admitting procedures in a hospital emergency room, a researcher seeks to determine whether the program is being implemented as proposed. Which research method will best serve this purpose?
A researcher was asked to evaluate the outcome of a program implemented to enhance recycling in a community. Which method will the researcher likely select to answer the question of whether the program was effective?
time series with nonequivalent control group design
Program evaluation represents perhaps the extreme case of
The relationship between basic research and applied research can best be described as
a reciprocal (or circular) relationships
Social policy research (like the research done by Ellen Langer on the effects of living in a nursing home among the elderly) serves the purpose(s) of
advancing scientific theory and knowledge and informing policy decisions
Perhaps the greatest difference between basic research and program evaluation lies in the differences in
the political and social realities surrounding each of them
According to Campbell (1969), the most significant change needed if our society is to approach social reforms as experiments is for public officials to emphasize
the importance of the problem rather than the importance of the solution
Which of the following is likely to be the most important benefit from the use of program evaluation based on sound experimental methodology?
providing information to policy makers that can be helpful in making more informed choices among possible treatments for social problems
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