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Rheumatic Fever

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Acute Rheumatic fever
delayed sequelae
of group A streptococcal pharyngitis, including
pharyngitis associated with scarlet fever.
Fever
• Joint aches
• Abdominal pain
• Weakness
• Fatigue
Non specific symptoms
Specific symptoms of Rheumatic fever
• Arthritis that affects numerous joints but emerges in on joint at a
time
• Abnormal heart beat
• Chest Pain
• Red patches on skin
• Small painless lumps beneath skin
• Rapid, involuntary movements in muscles of extremities or face
Jones Criteria
Must have two major manifestations or
• One major manifestation and two minor
manifestations
Exceptions to Jones Criteria
• Chorea may be the sole manifestation of ARF
• Indolent carditis may be the sole manifestation
in patient who fail to seek early medical
treatment
• Individuals with a history of ARF should be
presumed to have recurrence
manifestations.
Diagnostic criteria
Must have supportive evidence of antecedent
group A Streptococcal pharyngitis
• Positive throat culture
• Positive rapid streptococcal antigen test
• Elevated (especially rising) streptococcal
antibody testing:
Minor Manifestations:
• Other arthralgias
• Fever: 101 F to 104 F
• Elevated acute phase reactants (ESR and CRP)
• Prolonged PR Interval on ECG
• Prior history of rheumatic fever
Major Manifestations:
Migratory Poly-arthritis
Carditis
Subcutaneous nodules
Sydenham's chorea
Erythema Marginatum
CXR findings:
• Cardiomegaly
• Kerly B lines
• Heart Failure
EKG
Heart block
Lab findings:
• + Streptococcal Antibody Titers:
• ASO
• AntiDNase B
• ASTZ
• + Streptococcal throat culture
• Elevated Acute Phase Reactants (CRP and ESR)
Differential diagnosis (ARF has many systemic manifestations and could be confused with these due to s/s)
• Bacterial endocarditis
• Viral myocarditis
• Systemic Lupus
• Serum Sickness
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Infectious arthritis
Treatment goals for your pt with ARF
• Symptomatic relief of acute disease
manifestations
• Eradication of group A beta-hemolytic
streptococcus
• Prophylaxis against future infection to
prevent recurrent cardiac disease
What therapy will slowdown the valvular portion of the disease process
There is no therapy that slows the progression of valvular damage in patients with ARF
Symptomatic relief:
Anti-inflammatory agents
Anti-inflammatory agents used for symptomatic relief of ARF
• Aspirin: 4-8 grams qd
• Serum levels at 20-30mg/dl
• Dramatic relief in fever and arthralgias
• Continue until all symptoms are absent and
ESR levels are normalized
Treatment of Carditis:
• Treat heart failure using conventional therapy
• Treat heart block using conventional therapy
• Corticosteroids:
• Prednisone 2mg/kg/day
• Valve repair or replacement for non-
responsive heart failure
Antibiotics:
Antibiotic therapy with penicillin should be started and maintained for at least 10 days, regardless of the presence or absence of pharyngitis at the time of diagnosis.
What ABX should you use to treat a pt with ARF that also has a penicillin allergy?
• PCN allergic patients should be treated with
Erythromycin
Children: Rx: Penicillin VK
250mg bid-tid
Adults: Rx: Penicillin VK
500mg bid-tid
Bicillin LA may be used IM once in lieu of
Oral penicillin
Children Bicillin Rx
600,000 UNITS
Adults Bicillin Rx
1.2 million UNITS
Antibiotic prophylaxis:
the goal of antibiotic prophylaxis against Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus is to prevent recurrence of acute rheumatic fever.
How long should you continue a pt on ABX prophylaxis?
Consensus seems to be that therapy should be continued at least until the patient is a young adult (18-20 years old) or five years following acute manifestation of ARF
According to WHO guidelines Patients with proven carditis should remain on ABX therapy until?
5 years therapy or until age 18
According to WHO guidelines Patients with mild mitral regurgitation should remain on ABX therapy until?
at least 10 years prophylaxis or until age 25
According to WHO guidelines Patients with severe valve
disease/replacement should remain on ABX therapy until?
Lifelong therapy
What is the most severe sequela
of ARF
Rheumatic heart disease
• Occurs 10-20 years after the original illness
• Major cause of valvular heart disease worldwide
• Likely to occur in at least 50% of patients with carditis on initial presentation
What valve is most commonly affected in rheumatic heart disease
Mitral valve (mitral stenosis)
Other than the mitral valve what other valve is commonly affected
The Aortic Vavlve
The Valve rarely affected in rheumatic heart disease
Tricuspid valve