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a substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means

atomic number

the number of protons in a nucleus


atoms of an element that have different masses

mass number

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in that isotope


a substance that contains atoms of two or meore elements that are chemically combined


two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds


an electrically charged atom


an element that loses electrons easily to form positive ions


an element that gains electrons easily to form a negative ion


has the following characteristics:
-it occurs naturally
-it is solid
-It has a definite chemical composition
-its atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern
-it is inorganic (was never alive)


a regular geometric solid with smooth surfaces called crystal faces


minerals that are compounds including silicon and oxygen

silica tetrahedron

four oxygen atoms packed closely around a silicon atom
(the basic building block for a silicate


the tendency of a mineral to split along definite planes


the study of minerals and their properties

rock-forming minerals

quarts, feldspar, mica and calcite

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