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16 terms

Atoms to Minerals

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element
a substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
atomic number
the number of protons in a nucleus
isotope
atoms of an element that have different masses
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in that isotope
compound
a substance that contains atoms of two or meore elements that are chemically combined
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
ion
an electrically charged atom
metal
an element that loses electrons easily to form positive ions
nonmetal
an element that gains electrons easily to form a negative ion
mineral:
has the following characteristics:
-it occurs naturally
-it is solid
-It has a definite chemical composition
-its atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern
-it is inorganic (was never alive)
crystal
a regular geometric solid with smooth surfaces called crystal faces
silicate
minerals that are compounds including silicon and oxygen
silica tetrahedron
four oxygen atoms packed closely around a silicon atom
(the basic building block for a silicate
cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to split along definite planes
minerology
the study of minerals and their properties
rock-forming minerals
quarts, feldspar, mica and calcite