Chapter 37 Possible Test Questions
Terms in this set (90)
Name two insect orders and give an example of each.
Possible answers include: Isoptera, termites; Orthoptera, crickets, Odonata, dragonflies; Diptera, mosquitoes; Hymenoptera, bees; etc. For other answers see the chart on pg. 743.
List the three sections of the grasshopper thorax and state
which appendages are attached to each.
prothorax: first pair of walking legs; mesothorax: forewings
and second pair of walking legs; metathorax: hindwings and
What is the function of the gastric cecum?
It secretes enzymes for breaking down food.
What are some major characteristics of the class Insecta that have contributed to the biological success of insects?
Characteristics include a segmented body, three pairs of jointed legs, wings, exoskeleton, small size, short life span, metamorphosis, defensive behaviors.
List two ways that insects are harmful to society and two ways that they are beneficial.
Harmful effects include eating crops, spreading diseases, destroying buildings. Beneficial effects include serving as a food source, pollinating flowers, making honey, and recycling nutrients.
State the function of each of the following parts of an insect: labrum, tympanum, and ovipositor.
The labrum helps hold food in position. The
tympanum picks up sound vibrations. The female uses the ovipositor for reproduction.
What are the differences between incomplete and complete metamorphosis?
Incomplete metamorphosis includes egg, nymph, and adult stages. The nymph looks somewhat like the adult. Complete metamorphosis includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. Neither larva nor pupa resembles the adult or one another.
Describe two types of warning coloration in insects.
Müllerian mimicry is a defense in which a dangerous or poisonous species mimics the warning coloration of another species. Batesian mimicry is when a harmless species mimics the warning coloration of a dangerous or poisonous species.
What is the adaptive advantage of having a tracheal system rather than respiring through the skin?
Insects are able to pump oxygen into deep tissue where it is needed for their active lifestyles.
Metamorphosis is part of the process of growth and maturation of insects. What kind of internal mechanism likely controls metamorphosis?
Metamorphosis is controlled by hormones released during growth.
The monarch butterfly and the viceroy butterfly have similar markings, and birds do not eat either type. Monarchs are distasteful to birds, but viceroys are not. What type of defensive adaptation is being described?
Viceroys exhibit Batesian mimicry.
What is a pheromone?
A pheromone is a chemical released by an animal that affects the behavior or development of other animals of the same species through the sense of smell or taste.
What is a drone honeybee?
A drone is a male that develops
from an unfertilized egg.
What is queen factor?
It is a pheromone secreted by the queen that prevents other female larvae from developing into queens.
What is altruistic behavior?
It is behavior that helps other individuals at one's own risk or expense.
Name three ways that insects communicate, and give an example of each way.
Communication methods include pheromones—
ant trails, hive identification in honeybees, mate
attraction in moths; sound—mating in crickets and
mosquitoes; light flashes—mating in fireflies.
What determines whether a fertilized honeybee egg will develop into a worker or a queen?
If the larva from a fertilized egg is fed royal jelly throughout its development, it will become a
queen; if it is not, it will become a worker.
How do honeybees behave when their hive is overcrowded?
The queen leaves the hive and secretes a
pheromone that causes many workers to leave
with her to find a location for a new hive.
How do honeybees convey information about the direction and distance of a food source that is far from the hive?
Scout bees perform a waggle dance. The direction
of food is indicated by the angle of the straight run.
Distance to the food is indicated by the duration of
the dance and the number of waggles on each run.
How could you experiment to show that an insect is responding to pheromones and not visual cues?
Soak a piece of cotton with pheromone and observe how insects respond. Conceal the cotton so the insects can't see it.
What is the adaptive advantage of innate behavior?
Honeybees have short life spans but complex behaviors that are necessary for hive survival. Innate behavior allows the honeybee to have complex behaviors without spending too much of its short life learning these behaviors.
Queen bees sometimes mate with drones from other hives. How might this behavior benefit the colony?
Drones from the queen's hive share all of their genes with her because they developed from
unfertilized eggs that she laid. Mating with drones from other hives provides for genetic diversity.
Section 1 Chapter Highlights
● The insect body is divided into three tagmata. The head
has mandibles and one pair of unbranched antennae;
the thorax has three pairs of jointed legs and, in many
species, one or two pairs of wings; and the abdomen has
9 to 11 segments but neither wings nor legs in adults.
● Insects live in almost every terrestrial and freshwater
environment. Factors responsible for their success include
their ability to fly, exoskeleton, jointed appendages, small
size, and short life span.
● Insects negatively affect humans by competing for food,
transmitting diseases, and destroying buildings and other
manufactured products. However, insects are also
beneficial. They serve as food for other animals, pollinate
flowers, make valuable products such as honey, and
● The mouthparts of insects are often specialized for
tearing and cutting solid food or for sucking or soaking
up liquid food.
● Insects have an open circulatory system that transports
nutrients through the body. Gas exchange occurs by
means of air-filled tracheae that reach deep into the
body. Malpighian tubules remove cellular wastes from
the hemolymph while conserving water
● Insect sensory structures include simple and compound
eyes, sound-sensing tympana in some species, and
sensory hairs on the antennae and other body parts.
● Most insects go through metamorphosis. In incomplete
metamorphosis, a nymph hatches from an egg and
resembles the adult but has undeveloped reproductive
organs and no wings. The nymph molts several times to
become an adult.
● In complete metamorphosis, a wormlike larva hatches
from an egg and molts several times before becoming
a pupa. The pupa molts to produce the adult, which
resembles neither the larva nor the pupa.
● Insects can defend themselves by stinging, using
camouflage, or releasing noxious chemicals. Insects that
are dangerous or taste bad often have warning
coloration that makes them recognizable to predators.
The warning coloration of a dangerous species may be
mimicked by harmless species.
Section 2 Chapter Highlights
● Insects communicate by releasing pheromones and by
producing sounds and flashes of light.
● Honeybees live in complex colonies consisting mostly of
nonreproductive female workers that perform all duties
except reproduction. Reproduction in each colony is the
exclusive function of one queen and a few hundred
● Honeybees communicate the direction and distance to
food sources by performing dances inside the hive.
● In defending the colony, worker bees show altruistic
behavior toward their close relatives in the colony.
By doing so, they increase the propagation of their
For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
a. mesothorax and metathorax
b. labrum and labium
c. nymph and pupa
d. worker bee and queen bee
e. royal jelly and queen factor
a. mesothorax: middle thorax with forewings and second pair of walking legs; metathorax: posterior thorax with hindwings and jumping legs.
b. The labrum and labium are mouthpartshold food in place, like upperand lower lips, respectively.
c. In incomplete metamorphosis, a nymph is an immature form that looks somewhat like the adult. In complete metamorphosis, a pupa is a stage in which the insect is enclosed in a protective case.
d. Workers are nonreproductive
females that maintain the hive and feed the queen and larvae. Queens are reproductive females that produce the members of the hive.
e. Royal jelly is a protein substance that workers feed to the queen and youngest larva. Queen factor is a pheromone the queen produces to prevent other female larvae from
developing into queens.
Explain the relationship between altruistic behavior and kin selection.
Individuals are more likely to show altruistic behavior if the individuals they are protecting are related, and thus they have genes in common. The method of propagating one's own genes by helping a closely related individual reproduce is kin selection.
Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: egg, larva, pupa, and nymph.
Nymph is a stage of incomplete
metamorphosis. The others are
stages of complete metamorphosis
The word gastric is derived from the Greek gaster, which means "stomach." The word cecum is from the Latin caecus, which means "blind." Using this information, explain why the term gastric cecum is a good name for the structure that the term describes.
The gastric cecum produces digestive enzymes. It is an outpocket of the digestive tract, and thus a dead end (blind).
Identify three characteristics that entomologists use to divide insects into orders.
structure of mouthparts, number of wings, and type of development
State how the small size of insects has contributed to the biological success of insects.
Small size allows several species
to inhabit different environments within an area without competing with one another.
Explain why insect wings are not homologous to the wings of birds and bats.
Insect wings develop as outgrowths of the thorax and are composed of exoskeleton. The wings of birds and bats develop from limb buds.
Describe the function of spiracles in insects.
The spiracles admit air into the grasshopper's tracheae.
Define tympanum, and identify where it is located on a grasshopper.
The tympanum is an organ on each side of the first abdominal segment and is sensitive to sound vibrations.
Explain the function of warning coloration.
Warning coloration causes animals to stand out. Thus, predators may associate them with danger or an unpleasant taste.
Describe how crickets produce sounds, and explain the functions of these sounds.
Crickets produce sounds by rubbing a scraper on one forewing against a vein on the other forewing. These sounds attract mates and protect territories.
Define innate behavior, and give an example.
Innate behavior is genetically programmed behavior.
Examples include the dances of honeybees.
List the three types of individuals that make up a honeybee society.
The three types are workers, queen, and drones.
Compare the round dance with the waggle dance of honeybees.
The round dance indicates food is nearby, but not the exact location. The waggle dance is figure-eight shaped and indicates distance and direction to food.
Explain how altruistic behavior may have been selected in honeybees.
By defending the colony, a sterile worker bee increases the chances that the queen bee will
survive and produce more workers, which will share many of the same genes. Some of these genes are responsible for programming the defensive behavior.
Insects and crustaceans both belong to the phylum Arthropoda and share many characteristics. Recall that the
largest crustacean, the Japanese spider crab, has a leg span of 4 m. In contrast, the largest insects, such as the atlas moth, have a wingspan of only about 25 cm. Identify some possible reasons that the largest crustaceans are so much bigger than the largest insects.
Large crustaceans live in water, and the water helps support their weight. The largest insects are terrestrial, and the ability of the exoskeleton to support their body weight limits size.
What characteristics may have helped insects survive the major climatic changes that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species about 65 million years ago?
Short life span, rapid reproduction, metamorphosis,
and behavioral adaptations allow insects to adapt rapidly to changing environments.
The graph below shows changes in size of two insect populations over a six-year period. One population is considered a pest, and the other is considered a beneficial
species. At year 4, a pesticide is applied. Describe the relationship between the two species before year 4. How did the populations change after the application of the pesticide? Propose an explanation for the changes that occurred in the two populations after the use of pesticides.
The beneficial species is a predator of the pest species. Both populations crashed after application of the pesticide, but then the pest species increased while the beneficial species did not recover. Explanations include that the pest species is pesticide-resistant, but the beneficial species is not. Also, loss of the beneficial species allowed the pest species to increase without any population control.
Recall that squids and other cephalopods have a closed circulatory system, which supports their active lifestyle by circulating blood quickly through their bodies. Many insects, such as dragonflies and bees, are also very active, but all insects have an open circulatory system. How can insects maintain active lifestyles while having an open circulatory system?
The circulatory system of a cephalopod carries
oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the animal's
cells. Insects have tracheae to transport
these gases, so they can remain active with a
less-efficient circulatory system.
What are an insect's legs and wings attached to?
What are the mouthparts of a grasshopper specialized for?
F. sucking fluids
G. lapping up liquids
H. cutting and tearing fibers
J. filtering food out of muddy water
H- Cutting and tearing fibers
What is the term for the immature form of an insect that undergoes incomplete metamorphosis?
What kind of life cycle is shown?
F. direct development
G. seasonal development
H. complete metamorphosis
J. incomplete metamorphosis
H- Complete metamorphosis
What is the term for the developmental stage labeled C?
queen factor : queen bee :: royal jelly :
H. queen bee
What is the term for the structure(s) labeled D?
Which of the following structures is part of the structure labeled B?
J. malpighian tubules
Defensive adaptations in insects increase the chances
of insects' survival. Distinguish between passive defenses and aggressive defenses, and give two examples of each.
Passive defenses don't involve behavior. Examples include camouflage, warning coloration, being poisonous, or tasting bad. Aggressive defenses involve aggressive behavior, such as stinging
a potential predator or spraying it with a noxious chemical.
Farmers often try to limit the number of insects on crops by applying chemical insecticides to the crops.
Sometimes, an insecticide that had previously been
effective no longer affects certain types of insects.
Part A Why do farmers try to control insects?
Part B How can the effect of insecticides on certain insect populations change?
Part A Insects can cause extensive crop damage.
Part B Insecticides may control pest populations at first. However, insects with genes that confer pesticide resistance may survive and reproduce
in large numbers while nonresistant insects die off. The result is an insect population that has evolved resistance to the insecticide.
List the distinguishing characteristics of insects.
Insects have a body divided into head, thorax, and
abdomen; one pair of unbranched antennae; one
pair of compound eyes; three pairs of jointed legs;
and usually one or two pairs of wings.
To which order of insects do grasshoppers belong?
Grasshoppers belong to the order Orthoptera.
What characteristics of the grasshopper place it into order Orthoptera?
Characteristics include two pairs of straight wings, chewing mouthparts, and incomplete
How do you think the membrane between segments helps the grasshopper in its movements?
The membrane makes the body
How does the function of the stiff, leathery forewings differ from that of the more delicate hindwings?
The forewings serve as protective covers for the hindwings, which are used for flying. The forewings also help the grasshopper glide during flight.
Trace the path of food through the grasshopper's digestive tract
Food travels from the mouth through the esophagus, crop, gizzard, midgut, and hindgut. Wastes leave via the anus.
To what system do the Malpighian tubules belong?
The Malpighian tubules belong to the excretory system.
Why is the circulatory system of the grasshopper described as an open circulatory system?
The fluid (hemolymph) does not circulate entirely within a system of vessels.
Compared with invertebrates such as flatworms and earthworms, grasshoppers are highly responsive to environmental stimuli. What are some structural adaptations of the grasshopper that make this responsiveness possible?
The grasshopper's specialized sense organs, such as its antennae, simple and compound eyes, tympana, and sensory hairs, enable it to detect many different stimuli. It's segmented body, jointed legs, wings, and mouthparts allow it to respond to stimuli in a variety of ways.
Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs
1. labrum, labium
2. tympanum, ovipositor
3. incomplete metamorphosis, complete metamorphosis
4. nymph, pupa
1. Both are insect mouthparts; the labrum functions like an upper lip, and the labium functions like a lower lip.
2. The tympanum is a large oval membrane for sensing sound; the ovipositor is the last segment on a female's abdomen and is used to lay eggs.
3. In incomplete metamorphosis, a nymph hatches from an egg and undergoes a gradual change in body form to become an adult; in complete metamorphosis, an insect undergoes two major stages of development between egg and adult.
4. A nymph is an immature form of an insect that looks somewhat like the adult, but it is smaller, and its wings and reproductive organs are undeveloped; a pupa is a stage of development in which an insect changes from a larva to an adult.
One of the most important factors responsible for the success of insects is their
a. large size.
b. heavy exoskeleton.
c. long life span.
d. ability to fly
d- ability to fly
The protozoan that causes malaria is transmitted by
Which of the following is a structure that insects do not share with spiders?
c. Malpighian tubule.
The life cycle of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis may include all of the following stages except a(n)
The bombardier beetle defends itself by
a. dropping seeds on its enemies.
b. spraying a noxious chemical.
c. resembling the plants on which it feeds.
d. resembling a bumblebee.
b- spraying a noxious chemical
List three characteristics that insects share with other members of the subphylum Myriapoda.
List two differences between insects and other members of the subphylum Myriapoda.
Shared characteristics include mandibles, one pair of antennae, and unbranched appendages.
Differences (in most insects) include the presence of wings; only three pairs of legs; a body divided into head, thorax, and abdomen; and a life cycle
that includes metamorphosis.
What beneficial function do termites serve in wild habitats?
Termites feed on decaying wood, thereby recycling nutrients needed to maintain a healthy forest.
Describe the roles of the salivary glands and the gastric ceca in digestion in a grasshopper.
The salivary glands secrete saliva, which moistens food. The gastric ceca secrete enzymes into the midgut, where food is digested.
How does a chrysalis differ from a cocoon?
A chrysalis encloses a butterfly pupa; a cocoon encloses a moth pupa.
Female mosquitoes feed on blood, while male mosquitoes feed on plant sap or nectar. How is this difference in feeding behavior important for the reproductive success of mosquitoes?
To produce eggs, female mosquitoes must have a source of protein, which is present in large amounts in blood but not in sap or nectar. Male mosquitoes do not have this requirement.
A pheromone is a chemical that is released by an animal and that affects the behavior or development of other members of the same species.
Innate behavior is behavior that is genetically
Royal jelly is a high-protein substance that worker honeybees secrete and feed to the queen and the youngest larvae.
The queen factor is a pheromone secreted by a
queen honeybee that prevents other female larvae
from developing into queens.
Kin selection is a mechanism of increasing the propagation of one's own genes by helping a closely related individual reproduce.
Insects that communicate at a distance by producing sounds include
c. silkworm moths.
Honeybees that develop from unfertilized eggs are called
c. nurse bees.
A queen honeybee stops producing the queen factor when the
a. first worker hatches from its egg.
b. first drone hatches from its egg.
c. hive becomes overcrowded.
d. hive population drops below about 20 bees.
c- hive becomes overcrowded
Which body part does a scout bee move from side to side when the bee performs a
The stinging behavior of worker honeybees is
a. learned from the queen.
b. learned from the drones.
c. not an altruistic behavior.
d. an innate behavior.
d- an innate behavior
In which of the following kinds of insects does the male use its antennae to find distant females: cricket, mosquito, moth, firefly?
Name the communication signal detected by the antennae in each case.
Male mosquitoes and moths use their antennae to find distant females. Mosquitoes detect buzzing sounds; male moths detect pheromones.
What mechanism ensures that female crickets are attracted to males of the same species?
Male crickets produce several calls that differ from those of other cricket species.
Which of the three types of bees in a honeybee colony is (are) female?
Which of the three types is (are) sterile?
Workers and the queen are female; the workers are sterile.
Under what conditions will worker honeybees kill drones?
when the honey supply begins to run low
For an altruistic behavior to be maintained in a population over time, it must be directed at close relatives. Why is that so?
Close relatives share many genes with the individual
who performs the altruistic behavior, including the genes that code for that behavior. Those genes will remain in the population if the relatives reproduce successfully.
indicates that a food source is
near the hive
which indicates the
direction and distance to a food source