How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

88 terms

Blood

Chapter 19
STUDY
PLAY
Blood volume represents about ________ percent of a person's body weight.
7
The normal pH of blood is ________.
7.4
________ is responsible for the RBC's ability to transport oxygen and CO2.
hemoglobin
Which of the following drives exchange of fluids between the tissues and the blood?
concentration gradients, osmosis, and hydrostatic pressure
The total volume of blood in the body of a 76-kg man is approximately ________ liters.
5.3
Plasma is closest in composition to
interstitial fluid
When checking the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be necessary to draw a blood sample from
artery
Whole blood for testing in a clinical laboratory is usually collected from
superficial vein
Which of the following is a function of the blood?
transport of body heat
defense against toxins and pathogens
transport of gases
transport of nutrients and wastes
Which of these proteins functions to store or transport iron?
ferritin, transferrin, hemosiderin
The most abundant component of plasma is
water
A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is
fibrinogen
The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are
albumins
Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the
immunoglobins
A typical adult hematocrit is
45
Serum can't coagulate because the __________ has been removed.
fibrinogen
Transferrin is an example of which kind of plasma protein?
metalloprotein
Reticulocytes complete their development into ________ in the circulation.
red blood cells
In adults, red bone marrow is located in the
sternum, ribs, and iliac crest, body of vertebrae
________ is the condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced, owing to a low blood hemoglobin concentration.
Anemia
________ is the condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced, owing to a low blood hemoglobin concentration.
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Erythropoiesis is stimulated when
both oxygen levels in the blood decrease and blood flow to the kidney declines.
The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except
during periods of fasting
Pernicious anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor is specifically treated by
injections of vitamin B12
The waste product bilirubin is produced from
heme molecules lacking iron
After donating 0.5 liter of blood, one would expect
increased reticulocyte count
Aged and damaged erythrocytes are broken down by the
spleen, liver, and bone marrow
The function of red blood cells is to
both carry carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs and carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells.
Which of the following blood count values would be a sign of anemia?
3.5 million RBC
The average lifespan of a red blood cell is
4 months
The function of hemoglobin is to
carry oxygen and carry carbon dioxide only
In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the
red bone marrow
Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone
erythropoietin
More than 95 percent of the protein in a red blood cell is
hemoglobin
The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as
reticulocytes
Each heme ring in hemoglobin encloses an atom of
iron
Tom suffers from severe liver disease secondary to alcoholism. Which of the following signs would you expect to see as a result?
reduced iron storage
increased levels of bilirubin in the blood
decreased clotting ability
When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect
a drop in oxygen levels, the release of erythropoietin, and a rise in hematocrit
In adults, erythropoiesis exclusively takes place in
red bone marrow
A hematocrit provides information on
formed elements abundance
________ are immature erythrocytes that are present in the circulation.
Reticulocytes
Excess iron is stored in the liver and spleen as
hemosiderin and ferritin
If bile ducts are blocked,
more bilirubin appears in the plasma and bilirubin appears in the skin and eyes.
Mary is tested for the amount of hemoglobin in her blood. The test results indicate that her hemoglobin level is 16 g/dL of blood. This value indicates that
her hemoglobin level is normal
Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if
an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus
People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because
their blood lacks A or B agglutinins.
A person with Type A blood has
antigen A on the RBCs and anti-B agglutinins in the plasma.
Some rat poisons contain a toxin that blocks the liver's ability to utilize vitamin K. Animals that consume this poison would die of
hemorrhage
A person's blood type is determined largely by the
presence of specific glycoproteins on the cell membrane
Which of these descriptions best matches the term B lymphocytes?
produce antibodies in response to antigens
People with type "O" blood are considered "universal donors" for transfusions because __________.
their blood lacks A and B antigens
Which of these descriptions best matches the term eosinophils?
often elevated in allergic reactions
The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the
neutrophils
White blood cells that are increased in allergic individuals are the
eosinophils
All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are
important in coagulation
During a bacterial infection you would expect to see increased numbers of
neutrophils
White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are
basophils
The most abundant white blood cells are
neutrophils
The process of lymphopoiesis goes on in all of the following organs, except:

the lymph nodes.
the thymus.
the spleen.
the red bone marrow.
the kidney.
kidney
________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.
Anemia
A hormone that stimulates the production of neutrophils is
G-CSF (Neupogen)
Which of the following is not true of neutrophils?

can make hydrogen peroxide
attracted to complement-coated bacteria
less abundant than lymphocytes
can exit capillaries
can destroy bacteria
less abundant than lymphocytes
Which of these descriptions best matches the term T lymphocytes?

helper cells are one type
kill bacteria using hydrogen peroxide
often elevated in allergic individuals
adhere to collagen beneath endothelium
produce antibodies in response to antigens
helper cells are one type
The most numerous WBCs in a differential count of a healthy individual are
neutrophils
The pus associated with infected wounds contains
dead neutrophils.
cellular debris.
tissue fluids.
Megan has an infected puncture wound to her foot. Which type of white blood cell would you expect to be elevated in a differential white cell count?
neutrophils
Platelets function in all of the following, except

dissolving a formed clot.
forming temporary clump in injured areas.
releasing chemicals that stimulate clotting.
initiating the clotting process.
contraction after clot formation.
dissolving a formed clot
Platelets are stored as a reserve in case of hemorrhage in
the spleen and other vascular organs only.
A person whose platelet count is 40,000/µl is suffering from
thrombocytopenia
The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the
activation of Factor VII exposed to collagen.
Which of these descriptions best matches the term platelets?
adhere to collagen beneath endothelium
The common pathway of coagulation begins with the
conversion of Factor X to prothrombinase.
The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme
thrombin
A moving blood clot is called a(n)
embolus
Areas in a vessel wall where large quantities of lipid accumulate are called
plaques
The process of fibrinolysis
dissolves clots
________ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
Coagulation
The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the
release of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium.
What are common sources of vitamin K?
organ meats
intestinal bacteria
green vegetables
whole grains
The yellow color that is visible in the eyes and skin in jaundice results from
excessive amounts of bilirubin in the plasma, extensive breakdown of RBCs, and destruction of hemoglobin.
A person who has a low blood volume is said to be
hypovolemic
Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by
the liver
The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot is
plasmin
People who suffer from hemophilia A fail to produce a functional Factor VIII; as a result
they lack a functional intrinsic pathway.
A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful to
cause clot dissolution to proceed faster.
Consider these results from a blood lab test. Which value is most likely abnormal?

platelets-280,000/µl
RBCs-5.2 million/µl
leukocytes-8600/µl
hematocrit-44 percent
hemoglobin-10.7 g/100 ml
hemoglobin
Surgical removal of the stomach could cause
pernicious anemia
An obstruction in blood flow to the kidneys would ultimately result in
increased erythropoiesis