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Chapter 19

Blood volume represents about ________ percent of a person's body weight.


The normal pH of blood is ________.


________ is responsible for the RBC's ability to transport oxygen and CO2.


Which of the following drives exchange of fluids between the tissues and the blood?

concentration gradients, osmosis, and hydrostatic pressure

The total volume of blood in the body of a 76-kg man is approximately ________ liters.


Plasma is closest in composition to

interstitial fluid

When checking the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be necessary to draw a blood sample from


Whole blood for testing in a clinical laboratory is usually collected from

superficial vein

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

transport of body heat
defense against toxins and pathogens
transport of gases
transport of nutrients and wastes

Which of these proteins functions to store or transport iron?

ferritin, transferrin, hemosiderin

The most abundant component of plasma is


A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is


The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are


Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the


A typical adult hematocrit is


Serum can't coagulate because the __________ has been removed.


Transferrin is an example of which kind of plasma protein?


Reticulocytes complete their development into ________ in the circulation.

red blood cells

In adults, red bone marrow is located in the

sternum, ribs, and iliac crest, body of vertebrae

________ is the condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced, owing to a low blood hemoglobin concentration.


________ is the condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced, owing to a low blood hemoglobin concentration.

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Erythropoiesis is stimulated when

both oxygen levels in the blood decrease and blood flow to the kidney declines.

The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except

during periods of fasting

Pernicious anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor is specifically treated by

injections of vitamin B12

The waste product bilirubin is produced from

heme molecules lacking iron

After donating 0.5 liter of blood, one would expect

increased reticulocyte count

Aged and damaged erythrocytes are broken down by the

spleen, liver, and bone marrow

The function of red blood cells is to

both carry carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs and carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells.

Which of the following blood count values would be a sign of anemia?

3.5 million RBC

The average lifespan of a red blood cell is

4 months

The function of hemoglobin is to

carry oxygen and carry carbon dioxide only

In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the

red bone marrow

Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone


More than 95 percent of the protein in a red blood cell is


The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as


Each heme ring in hemoglobin encloses an atom of


Tom suffers from severe liver disease secondary to alcoholism. Which of the following signs would you expect to see as a result?

reduced iron storage
increased levels of bilirubin in the blood
decreased clotting ability

When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect

a drop in oxygen levels, the release of erythropoietin, and a rise in hematocrit

In adults, erythropoiesis exclusively takes place in

red bone marrow

A hematocrit provides information on

formed elements abundance

________ are immature erythrocytes that are present in the circulation.


Excess iron is stored in the liver and spleen as

hemosiderin and ferritin

If bile ducts are blocked,

more bilirubin appears in the plasma and bilirubin appears in the skin and eyes.

Mary is tested for the amount of hemoglobin in her blood. The test results indicate that her hemoglobin level is 16 g/dL of blood. This value indicates that

her hemoglobin level is normal

Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if

an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus

People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because

their blood lacks A or B agglutinins.

A person with Type A blood has

antigen A on the RBCs and anti-B agglutinins in the plasma.

Some rat poisons contain a toxin that blocks the liver's ability to utilize vitamin K. Animals that consume this poison would die of


A person's blood type is determined largely by the

presence of specific glycoproteins on the cell membrane

Which of these descriptions best matches the term B lymphocytes?

produce antibodies in response to antigens

People with type "O" blood are considered "universal donors" for transfusions because __________.

their blood lacks A and B antigens

Which of these descriptions best matches the term eosinophils?

often elevated in allergic reactions

The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the


White blood cells that are increased in allergic individuals are the


All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are

important in coagulation

During a bacterial infection you would expect to see increased numbers of


White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are


The most abundant white blood cells are


The process of lymphopoiesis goes on in all of the following organs, except:

the lymph nodes.
the thymus.
the spleen.
the red bone marrow.
the kidney.


________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.


A hormone that stimulates the production of neutrophils is

G-CSF (Neupogen)

Which of the following is not true of neutrophils?

can make hydrogen peroxide
attracted to complement-coated bacteria
less abundant than lymphocytes
can exit capillaries
can destroy bacteria

less abundant than lymphocytes

Which of these descriptions best matches the term T lymphocytes?

helper cells are one type
kill bacteria using hydrogen peroxide
often elevated in allergic individuals
adhere to collagen beneath endothelium
produce antibodies in response to antigens

helper cells are one type

The most numerous WBCs in a differential count of a healthy individual are


The pus associated with infected wounds contains

dead neutrophils.
cellular debris.
tissue fluids.

Megan has an infected puncture wound to her foot. Which type of white blood cell would you expect to be elevated in a differential white cell count?


Platelets function in all of the following, except

dissolving a formed clot.
forming temporary clump in injured areas.
releasing chemicals that stimulate clotting.
initiating the clotting process.
contraction after clot formation.

dissolving a formed clot

Platelets are stored as a reserve in case of hemorrhage in

the spleen and other vascular organs only.

A person whose platelet count is 40,000/µl is suffering from


The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the

activation of Factor VII exposed to collagen.

Which of these descriptions best matches the term platelets?

adhere to collagen beneath endothelium

The common pathway of coagulation begins with the

conversion of Factor X to prothrombinase.

The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme


A moving blood clot is called a(n)


Areas in a vessel wall where large quantities of lipid accumulate are called


The process of fibrinolysis

dissolves clots

________ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.


The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the

release of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium.

What are common sources of vitamin K?

organ meats
intestinal bacteria
green vegetables
whole grains

The yellow color that is visible in the eyes and skin in jaundice results from

excessive amounts of bilirubin in the plasma, extensive breakdown of RBCs, and destruction of hemoglobin.

A person who has a low blood volume is said to be


Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by

the liver

The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot is


People who suffer from hemophilia A fail to produce a functional Factor VIII; as a result

they lack a functional intrinsic pathway.

A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful to

cause clot dissolution to proceed faster.

Consider these results from a blood lab test. Which value is most likely abnormal?

RBCs-5.2 million/µl
hematocrit-44 percent
hemoglobin-10.7 g/100 ml


Surgical removal of the stomach could cause

pernicious anemia

An obstruction in blood flow to the kidneys would ultimately result in

increased erythropoiesis

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