57 terms

EECS Chap 10

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Assembler (program)
language translator program that translates assembly-language programs into machine language. (needed to translate all upper-level languages into machine language, the language that actually runs the computer)
Machine language
lowest-level (first generation) programming language; the language of the computer, representing data as 1s and 0s. Most machine-language programs vary from computer to computer. They are machine dependent. It is the language that actually runs the computer
Assembly language
second-generation programming language; it allows a programmer to write a program using abbreviations instead of the 0s and 1s of machine language
CASE tools
software that provides computer-automated means of designing and changing systems (make systems design easier and can be used in almost any phase of the SDLC)
coding
third step I the programming process, consisting of translating logic requirements from pseudocode or flowcharts into a programming language (actual writing of a computer program, although it is only the third of five steps in programming
compiler
language translator that converts the entire program of a high-level language (called source code) into machine language (called object code) for execution later. Examples: COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, and C (enables the object code to be saved and executed later rather than run right away. Advantage of compiler language is that, once the object code has been obtained, the program executes faster.
control structure/logic structure
the programming structure that controls the logical sequence in which computer program instructions are executed. One entry and one exit simplifies the logic so that it's easier for others following in a programmer's footsteps to make sense of the program
Three control structures that form the logic of a program
sequence, selection, and iteration/loop
data flow diagram (DFD)
modeling tool that graphically shows the flow of data through a system including inputs, outputs, and files. Diagrams the processes that change data into information
debug
part of program testing; the detection, location, and removal of syntax and logic errors in the program
desk-checking
form of program testing; programmers read through a program to ensure it's error-free and logical
documentation
written descriptions of what a program is and how to use it
flash player (Adobe)
like JavaScripts, Flash is also a browser "add-on"; it uses Adobe Flash, a scripting language based on Action-Script, to support web animation, streaming audio and video, and games. Used on most computers and mobile devices
generations of programming languages
machine language, assembly language, high-level languages, very-high-level languages, natural languages.
hierarchy chart/structure chart
diagram used in programming it illustrate the overall purpose of a program, identifying all the modules needed to achieve that purpose and the relationships among them. Input-processing, and output.
high-level/procedural/object-oriented languages
third-generation programming languages that somewhat resemble human languages. Examples: FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, and C. Allow programmers to write in a familiar notation rather than numbers or abbreviations. Most can be used on more than one kind of computer
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
markup language that lets people create on-screen documents for the Internet that can easily be linked by words and pictures to other documents. Used to create web pages.
interpreter
language translator that converts each high-level language statement into machine language and executes it immediately, statement by statement. An example of a high-level language using an interpreter is BASIC (unlike a compiler translator, it does not save object code. The advantage of an interpreter is that programs are easier to develop.
JavaScript
object-oriented scripting language used, for example, to write small interactive functions that are embedded in HTML pages and interact with the browser to perform certain tasks not possible in static HTML alone. It is used to create powerful dynamic web applications (there's no real relationship between JavaScript and Java)
language translator
type of system software that translates a program written in a second, third, or higher generation language into machine language. Important because computers run only using machine language, all higher-level languages must be translated
Three types of language translators
assemblers, compilers, and interpreters
logic errors
programming errors caused by incorrect use of control structures. Prevent a program from running properly
markup language
a kind of coding, or "tags," inserted into text that embeds details about the structure and appearance of the text with in a text file-for example, HTML. the word "markup" is derived from the traditional publishing practice of "marking up" a manuscript, that is, adding printer's instruction sin the margins of a paper manuscript. Example: SGML (important because markup languages have codes for indicating layout and styling, such as boldface, italics, paragraphs, and insertion of graphics
modeling tools
analytical tools such as charts, tables, and diagrams that are used by systems analysts. Examples are data flow diagrams, decision tables, systems flowcharts, and object-oriented analysis. Enable a systems analysis to present graphic, or pictorial, representations of a system
module/subprogram/subroutine
a processing step of a program. Each module is made up of logically related program statements. Each modules has only a single function, which limits the module's size and complexity
natural languages
ordinary human languages or fifth-generation programming languages that use human language to give people a more natural connection with computers.
Object
in object-oriented programming, bloc of preassembled programming code that is a self-contained module. The module contains both a chunk of data and the processing instructions that may be called on to be performed on that data. Once the object becomes part of a program, the processing instructions may be activated only when a "message" is set. The object can be reused and interchanged among programs, thus making the programming process much easier, more flexible and efficient, and faster
object-oriented programming (OOP)
programming method in which data and the instructions for processing that data are combined into a self-sufficient object-a piece of software that can be used in other programs. Objects can be reused and interchanged among programs, producing greater flexibility and efficiency than is possible with traditional programming methods
preliminary investigation
phase one of the SDLC; the purpose is to conduct a preliminary analysis (determine the organization's objectives, determined the nature and scope of the problem), propose alternative solutions (leave the system as is, improve the efficiency of the system, or develop a new system), describe costs and benefits, and submit a preliminary plan with recommendations. It lays the groundwork for the other phases of the SDLC
Problem clarification/definition
step one in the programming process. The problem-definition step requires performing six ministeps: specifying objectives and users, outputs, inputs, and processing tasks and then studying the feasibility of the program and documenting the analysis.
Program
list of instructions the computer follows to process data into information. The instructions consist of statements written in a programming language (for example, BASIC) Without programs, computers could not process date into information
program design
step two in the programming process; programs are designed in two ministeps: the program logic is determined through a top-down approach and modularization, using a hierarchy chart; and then the program is designed in detail, using pseudocode or flowcharts with logical tools called control structures
program flowchart
chart that graphically presents the detailed series of steps needed to solve a programming problem; it uses standard symbols called ANSI symbols.
program testing
step four in the programming process; involves running various tests and then running real-world data to make sure the program works.
programming
five step process for creating software instructions: clarify/define the problem, design a solution, write (code) the program, test the program, and document and maintain the program
programming language
set of rules (words and symbols) that allow programmers to tell the computer what operations to follow. The five levels (generations of programming languages are machine language, assembly language, high-level (procedural) languages, very-high-level (nonprocedural) languages, and natural languages.
prototype
a limited working system, or part of one, developed to test design concepts. It can be constructed in just a few days, allows users to find out immediately how a change in the system might benefit them
prototyping
using workstations, CASE tools, and other software applications to build working models of system components so that they can be quickly tested and evaluated (it is a part of the preliminary design stage of phase three of the SDLC)
pseudocode
tool for designing a program in narrative form using normal human-language statements to describe the logic and processing flow. Using pseudocode is like doing an outline or summary form of the program to be written
script
short list of self=executing commands embedded in a web page that perform specific function or routine, often without user involvement
structured programming
method of programming that takes a top-down approach, breaking programs into modular forms and using standard logic tools called control structures (sequence, selection, case, iteration) Help create better-organized programs, using standard notations with clear, correct descriptions
syntax
"grammar" rules of a programming language
system
collection of related components that interact to perform a task in order to accomplish a goal
systems analysis
phase two of the SDLC; the purpose is to gather data (using written documents, interviews, questionnaires, and observation), analyze the data, and write a report
systems analysis and design
problem-solving procedure for examining an information system and improving it; consists of the six-phase systems development life cycle
systems design
phase three of the SDLC; the purpose is to do a preliminary design and then a detail design and to write a report
systems development
phase four of the SDLC; consists of acquiring and testing hardware and software for the new system. This phase begins once management has accepted the report containing the design and has approved the way to development
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
six-phase process that many organizations follow during systems analysis and design: preliminary investigation, systems analysis, systems design, systems development, systems implementation, and systems maintenance. Phases often overlap, and after the first four phases, management must decide whether to proceed to the next phase.
systems implementation
phase five of the SDLC; consists of keeping the system working by having system audits and periodic evaluations and by making changes based on new conditions (involves putting design ideas into operation)
systems maintenance
phase six of the SDLC; consists of keeping the system working by having system audits and periodic evaluations and by making changes based on new conditions (important for keeping a new system operational and useful)
top-down program design
method of program design; a programmer identifies the top or principle processing step, or module, of a program and then breaks it down in hierarchical fashion to the lowest level of detail
very-high-level languages
also known as problem-oriented and nonprocedural languages and fourth-generation languages, more user-oriented than third-generation languages, require fewer commands. Consist of report generators, query languages, and application generators. (can tell computer only what they want done, not all the steps for doing it)
visual programming
method of creating programs in which the programmer makes connections between objects by drawing, pointing, and clicking on diagrams and icons and by interacting with flow charts. Programming is made easier because the orientation of object-oriented programming is used in a graphical or visual way. Enables users to think more about the problem solving than about handling the programming language
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling [Markup] Language)
type of programming language used to create three-dimensional web pages. Expands the information-delivering capabilities of the web
writing the program documentation
step five in the programming process; programmers write procedures explaining how the program was constructed and how it is to be used. It is the final stage in the five-step programming process.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
metalanguage used to make it easy for machines to read websites by allowing web developers to add more "tags" to a web page. It is more powerful than HTML, allowing information on a website to be described by general tags, for example, identifying one piece of information in a recipe as "cooking time" and another as "ingredients"
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