SGU DI: Final Set 2
Terms in this set (73)
What is the difference between where gas accumulates in L vs R lateral projections of the stomach?
L lateral: gas accumulates in right side - body and pyloric antrum.
R lateral: gas accumulates in left side - fundus
The majority of the feline stomach is located on which side of the vertebral column?
What are indications for contrast studies of the stomach?
suspect foreign body.
chronic pyloric obstruction.
What type of contrast medium is used for contrast studies of the stomach?
*unless you suspect intestinal rupture...then use iodine based
What part of the small intestine can be differentiated if it contains gas?
How do peyer plaques appear on contrast radiography?
may cause indentations in the contrast.
How does the ileum appear normally on ultrasound?
"wagon wheel" appearance on cross-section
What are some signs of malignancy on ultrasound of intestinal neoplasia?
thickened intestinal wall.
loss of layering.
What can be assessed with ultrasound of the GI tract?
motility (except in colon).
regional lymph nodes
What can be assessed on radiograph of the kidneys?
position, size and shape
Which kidney may not always be seen on radiograph?
What are some potential causes of a "missing kidney" on radiograph?
What lateral projection is more preferred for assessing kidneys?
R lateral b/c kidneys are better separated
On radiograph, where would you find the kidneys in a dog vs cat?
dog: right kidney at T13-L2; left kidney at L1-L3.
cat: right kidney at L2-L4; left kidney at L3-L5
The length of kidneys on VD radiograph is compared to what structure?
the length of L2
What are some causes of unilateral small kidney on radiograph?
chronic renal infarct.
Kidneys are rounder in which species...dog or cat?
What imaging modality is good for assessing internal architecture of kidneys?
What is a typical ultrasonic appearance of a kidney with chronic infarct?
triangular - broad-based toward the capsule in the renal cortex.
mild indentation of renal contour
What are some causes of a hyperechoic renal cortex?
fatty deposits - not pathological in cats.
ethylene glycol intoxication.
If you see a hyperechoic renal cortex on ultrasound, what is the only way to diagnose the underlying problem?
How do end-stage kidneys appear on ultrasound?
poorly distinguishable from surrounding tissue.
blurred cortico-medullary boundary
What are some potential causes for a distended renal pelvis?
Polycystic kidney disease is more common in what breed of cat?
How does polycystic kidney disease appear on ultrasound?
many anechoic cavernous lesions.
hyperechoic renal parenchyma
What are some benefits of doing a contrast study of the kidneys?
contrast medium rapidly excreted
What are contraindications for doing a contrast study of the kidneys?
known hypersensitivity to contrast.
decompensated cardiac insufficiency
True/False: azotemia is a contraindication for doing a contrast study of the kidneys
false - although is does make it more difficult due to decreased GFR
What are you looking at when assessing renal perfusion during a contrast study?
are both kidneys opacified.
is the contrast evenly distributed
In a contrast study of the kidneys, contrast accumulation is dependent on what factors?
plasma concentration of contrast.
glomerular filtration rate.
osmolality in the renal tubuli
Contrast is evident in the renal pelvis how long after injection?
What is being evaluated with a pyelogram?
renal pelvis and proximal ureters
How does a normal renal pelvis appear on a pyelogram?
narrow sickle-shaped structure
True/False: on a pyelogram, ureters should have gaps
true - due to peristalsis
What are some ureter abnormalities that can be detected with a contrast study?
dilation due to obstruction.
What is the best way to assess ureter termination?
combination of IV urogram and pneumocystogram
How will a normal ureter termination appear on contrast study?
hook-shaped end inserting in trigone area of the bladder
What breed has a predilection for ectopic ureters?
**mainly young, female
What will radiographs looks like in a patient with ruptured ureter?
increased retro-peritoneal opacity.
reduced retroperitoneal detail.
poor margination of kidneys
What are indications for radiographing the urinary bladder?
changes in urine.
pain at micturition.
suspicion of uroliths
What uroliths are radio-opaque?
ammonium urate (maybe)
Which urolith is radiolucent?
What are morphologic features of calcium oxalate vs struvite uroliths?
calcium oxalate: radio-opaque, small, spikey.
struvite: radio-opaque, amorphous
What can negative contrast cystography assess?
thickness of bladder wall.
position of bladder.
What is a contraindication for doing a negative contrast cystography?
severe hematuria -- danger of causing air-embolism
What is a good way to diagnose urolithiasis on radiograph?
double contrast cystography
What can filling defects indicate on double contrast cystography?
central: cystic uroliths.
periphery & irregular: blood clots.
periphery & round: gas bubbles
What abnormality would cause a pointed bladder apex that has accumulation of contrast on double contrast cystography?
True/False: ureters are normally visible on ultrasound
What can you use doppler ultrasound to assess at the ureterovesical junction?
ureteric jets = ejection of urine into bladder lumen.
How do cystic uroliths appear on ultrasound?
How can you differentiate cystitis vs tumor vs blood clot on ultrasound?
change patient position!
tumor will remain in situ.
cystitis mainly affects apical wall.
blood clot moves to dependent part of bladder
How would you set up for taking a lateral view radiograph of the male urethra?
flex hindlimbs maximally.
center beam on ischium.
collimate for caudal abdomen and pelvis.
Does ultrasound of ovaries require lower or higher frequency?
How should the thyroid gland appear on ultrasound?
spindle shaped organ on either side of trachea caudal to larynx.
finely granular echotexture.
iso- or hyperechoic to surrounding muscles
When doing scintigraphy of thyroid glands, you should compare to which other structures which have similar uptake?
How do parathyroid glands appear on ultrasound?
2 at cranial end and 2 at caudal end of thyroid glands
What are abdominal radiographic features of hyperadrenocorticism?
How does a liver appear on ultrasound in a patient with hyperadrenocorticism?
*isoechoic to spleen
What will adrenal glands look like in a patient with PDH?
What are the only imaging modalities you can use to assess the pituitary gland?
CT or MRI
What is the best method for imaging the pancreas?
CT - contrast study
Which lobe of the pancreas is larger in the dog vs cat?
On ultrasound, how can you differentiate the pancreatic duct from the pancreatic-duodenal vein?
use doppler ultrasound - no flow in the duct
Where does the left body of the pancreas body normally lie?
caudal to stomach; cranial to transverse colon
How does chronic pancreatitis appear on ultrasound?
discrete lobular fibrosis.
*common in clinically normal cats and dogs
What is the best imaging modality for detecting insulinoma?
contrast CT study
What imaging modality is good for assessing the eye and retrobulbar space?
What imaging modality is especially good for assessing the brain and inner/middle ear?
What are radiographs useful for when assessing the head?
presence of soft tissue swelling.
radio-opaque foreign bodies
How does a detached retina appear on ultrasound?
hyperechoic band of tissue separated from the choroid.
converges at optic disc
What type of transducer should be used to ultrasound small animal musculoskeletal system?
linear, high frequency
What joints are commonly examined with ultrasound in small animals?