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Terms in this set (53)
Ambrose of Milan
He was an unbaptized Roman governor when the people of Milan elected him to be their bishop. Among his many accomplishments as bishop were to see many monuments to paganism removed from public places and to force the Emperor Theodosius to do penance for ordering the slaughter of an unruly mob in Thessalonica.
Antony the Great
The Father of all monks, the one who hid away all of the time.
Best known, however, as a noted opponent of Arianism, Apollinarius' eagerness to emphasize the Godhead of Jesus and the unity of his person led him so far as to deny the existence of a rational human soul in Christ's human nature, this being replaced in him by the Logos, so that his body was a glorified and spiritualized form of humanity.
His teachings about the nature of the Godhead, which emphasized the Father's divinity over the Son, and his opposition to Homoousian Trinitarian Christology, made him a primary topic of the First Council of Nicea, There was a godhead before the son.
A renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
: He was born to a pagan father and a Christian mother in North Africa and grew up with a low view of Christianity because of the unsophistication of the Scriptures and the Christians he knew. When he moved to Milan to further his career, he met Ambrose, a highly educated and impressive Christian bishop who was able to account for his misgivings. He went on to become a bishop himself (in Hippo of North Africa) and the leading figure of Latin Christendom, setting the theological agenda for centuries to come
Basil of Caesarea
Known as one of the "Cappadocian Fathers," he was a bishop in Asia Minor who took leadership of the Nicene party after the death of Athanasius. He wrote several works in defense of Trinitarian orthodoxy, including the well-known On the Holy Spirit against those who denied the Spirit's divinity.
Benedict of Nursia
In the sixth century he composed the Monastic Rule, which goes by his name. It is a sort of "constitution" for governing an organized ascetic community, or monastery. His is characterized by simplicity and self-discipline, and in time it became the only recognized monastic rule in the Roman Catholic Church, exercising a profound influence on the mind of medieval Europe.
Clement of Alexandria:
A late 2nd century Christian writer who gives us a first glimpse into the Egyptian Church. His goal was to articulate the simplicity of the apostolic faith with a sophistication that would appeal to the educated and elite of Alexandrian society. He taught that "gnosis" was indeed the goal of Christian life but that it is possible for all who live lives of purity to attain it.
Emperor that accepted Christianity.
Cyprian of Carthage
Early Christian theologian and bishop of Carthage who led the Christians of North Africa during a period of persecution from Rome. Upon his execution he became the first bishop-martyr of Africa.
Cyril of Alexandria
Was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444. He was enthroned when the city was at the height of its influence and power within the Roman Empire. Cyril wrote extensively and was a leading protagonist in the Christological controversies of the later 4th and 5th centuries. He was a central figure in the First Council of Ephesus in 431, which led to the deposition of Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople.
Cyril of Jerusalem
About the end of 350 he succeeded Maximus as Bishop of Jerusalem, but was exiled on more than one occasion due to the enmity of Acacius of Caesarea, and the policies of various emperors. Cyril left important writings documenting the instruction of catechumens and the order of the Liturgy in his day.
In the fourth century, he was the first pope to claim that the power of "binding and loosing" which had been granted to Peter by Christ devolved exclusively to the bishops of Rome because Roman bishops are the direct historical successors to Peter.eligious accomplishments, which included restoring Saint Lawrence outside the Walls, encouraging his personal secretary Saint Jerome in his Vulgate translation of the Bible, and presiding over the Council of Rome in 382, which may have set down the canon of Scripture
Emperor from 284 until 305, carried through a major remodeling of the empire after the crises of the third century. Ruled the empire in the East. He wanted to avoid bloodshed.
Eusebius of Nicomedia
: He was an Arian sympathizing bishop of the most important city of the eastern Empire. He had the ear of Constantine throughout the emperor's life, even being the one to baptize him on his deathbed. He used his influence to have his theological nemesis Athanasius exiled from Alexandria and to ensure an Arian replacement. When Constantine founded his new eastern capitol, Constantinople, this person was relocated to become its first bishop.
Gregory the Great
He was a late sixth-century Roman Pope known for consolidating papal power and, in particular, asserting its independence from civil authorities. After the Lombards wrested control of Italy from the Roman Empire, he fatefully turned his attentions away from the Greek east and set his sights instead upon evangelizing the emergent western barbarian tribes. His papacy marks a definitive turn toward estrangement between Eastern and Western Christendom.
Gregory of Nazianzus
He was an early fourth century bishop who understood the differentiation of Father, Son and Holy Spirit to be a temporary scheme of God's for the purpose of redeeming the world. At the consumation of all things, the three will collapse again into singularity. He was welcomed in Rome, but easterners, including Athanasius, found his doctrine too close to that of Sabellius' Modalism, and it was ultimately rejected at the second ecumenical council.
Irenaeus of Lyons
Leading Christian theologian of the 2nd century. His work, Against Heresies, written in about 180, was a refutation of Gnosticism. In the course of his writings Irenaeus advanced the development of an authoritative canon of Scriptures, the creed, and the authority of the episcopal office. He also explains that Jesus was in the Old Testament.
James the Lord's brother
First Bishop of Jerusalem. He was an apostle.
He was a Latin-speaking intellectual who converted to Christianity in Rome, became a monk, then a priest, and finally took up residence at a monastery in Bethlehem where he ended his life. His most famous achievement was translating the complete Bible into the Latin version referred to today as the Vulgate. He also wrote many original commentaries on the New Testament, the first of their kind in the Latin language. Though living in the east, he removed himself from the Christological controversies brewing there and instead focused his attention on troubles back at Rome, playing an active role in several controversies through a voluminous correspondence.
Julian the Apostate
He was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363. Though he had been raised a Christian, he tried to reinstate traditional pagan polytheism as the official religion of the empire, and is thus known to history as "the Apostate" (one who abandons the faith). In order to accomplish his task he in fact reinvented a lot of pagan "tradition" so that it more closely resembled the order and forms used by the Church, which had been so successful.
Has three writings: Apology, Dialogue with Trypho, and On the Resurrection. Adopted Platonism. Defending Christianity by using philosophy and morality.
Leo the Great
He was a fifth century Pope who cemented the notion in the west that the bishops of Rome are the unique heirs to Peter's apostolic authority. He sent his Tome to the Council of Chalcedon with the expectation that it would be readily acclaimed not for its demonstrable adherence to orthodoxy, but on the simple grounds that it had issued from the papal pen. He is also remembered for skillfully negotiating on behalf of the city of Rome with Attila the Hun and invading Vandals.
He has an opposite opinion as Tertullian. Denies Christ's flesh. The God in the Old Testament is unforgiving and ruthless. Gnostic. The main points of Marcion's teaching were the rejection of the Old Testament and a distinction between the Supreme God of goodness and an inferior God of justice, who was the Creator and God of the Jews. He regarded Christ as the messenger of the Supreme God.
Melito of Sardis
Writes on the Passover. A Greek bishop of Sardis argued that Christianity should be made the state religion. A notable early Christian spokesman.
Founder of Montanism, a schismatic movement of Christianity in Asia Minor and North Africa. Detach from material desires. Also known as "New Prophecy". Tertullian became a follower at the end of his life.
Christ has two natures, the form of a slave and that of God. Our debt goes all the way back to Adam.
An early 3rd century Christian teacher from Alexandria who became a scholar of the Hebrew Bible in order to better debate with the Jews, developed the first truly systematic account of Christian theology in order to refute the Gnostics, and was a master of pagan philosophy even though he deplored it. He ended his life in Caesarea, Palestine. He believes in subordinatism.
Paul of Tarsus
Paul set the tone for Christianity, including its emphasis on celibacy and the theory of divine grace and salvation, as well as eliminating the circumcision requirement.
He was known as the "chief of the Apostles" and remembered as the first bishop of Rome where he was ultimately martyred.
Writes many letters to the Philippians. He stresses the importance of being faithful to God and never committing acts of evil. His writings are very strong about Jesus being resurrected. He was finally martyred.
He was a late 2nd/early 3rd century Christian in North Africa who was the first Christian author in the Latin language. He establish the terminology that Latin Christendom has used to describe the Trinity ever since. He ended his life at odds with the Roman Church as a defender of the schismatic "New Prophecy"
Vincent of Lerins
Writes about the importance of following the ancient Christian scriptures. Tradition and the true meaning of the writings in the Bible is very importance to Vincent.
Jesus Christ, is entirely distinct from and subordinate to God the Father.
Donatism was an indirect outcome of Diocletian's persecutions. It was a separate Christian sect, in Africa.
Taught an elaborate dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good word and an evil. Founded by Mani and it was a major religion in the Sasanian Empire. Waned to unite everyone in one religion. Lasted a while, was severely persecuted in the Roman Empire.
Jesus had only a single nature which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
To Nestorius, Christ takes on two natures, the form of a slave and that of God.
All souls were created at the beginning of time, pre-existed the body. Had a previous life. Christ was a human soul that never fell like the rest of us.
The destruction of religious icons and other images or monuments for religious or political motives.
Denies the Trinity, God is only present in one form at a time. He has shown himself three times in the bible.
Gnosticism, as an intellectual product, is grounded firmly in the general human act of reflecting upon existence. Philosophy.
Original sin did not taint human nature and as humans we are capable of choosing good or evil without divine aid. Pelagius also taught that humans are sufficient to live a sinless life.
Believing in multiple, subordinate Gods to the one God.
The belief that Jesus only seemed to be human, his human form was an illusion. Docetism as attacked by many Christians and theologians.
Council of Jerusalem
Held in 50 AC, discussed Gentiles converting to Christianity and whether or not some rules still applied. Most namely, the conflict with circumcision was discussed. It was determined that you do not have to be circumcised to be Christian
Council of Nicaea
Council of Christian Bishops in 325 AD. The main accomplishment was to settle the issue of the nature of the Son of God and observance of the date of Easter
Council of Constantinople: Confirmed the Nicene creed.
Council of Ephesus
Third Ecumenical Council. Condemned the teachings of Nestorius that said that Mary was not Theotokos. 431. Called to settle the debate between Cyril and Nestorius. Favors Cyril and dispose Nestorius (two person Christology). Confirmed theotokos (Mary is the birth giver of God).
Council of Chalcedon
451, Cyril and Nestorius and not present one person in two natures (conclusion), one person from two natures, one nature after the union (Cyril).
Explains that God was in Jesus, Jesus was divine
Rule of Faith
A concise summary of what Christians believe that can be used for interpreting the Bible.
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