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28 terms

midterms- Bio

STUDY
PLAY
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things.
3. New cells are produced from living things
List the three components of the Cell Theory
Mathias Schleiden
Discovered that all plants are made of cells(3)
Lynn Marquilis
Discovered that all cell organelles may have once been free-living organisms(6)
Robert Hooke
The first cells were seen and a book was published with drawings by ______(1)
Theodore Shwann
Discovered that all animals are mad of cells(4)
Anton Van Leewenhoek
Observation of organisms living in pond water(2)
Rudolph Vironow
Discovered that cells come from other cells (5)
Nucleus
A large membrane enclosed structure that constrains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
Eukaryotic Cells
-have nucleus
-bigger and more complex (compartments)
-organelles
-specific functions
-can be single celled or multi-cellular
Plants, animals, fungi, and protists
4 examples of eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells
-no nucleus
-smaller and simple
-have all charecteristics of life
Bacteria
Example of prokaryotic cell
DNA
What is the control center of the bacteria cell?
Nucleus Organelle
-found in plants and animals
-makes RNA
-houses DNA
-contains nucleolus
-"control cell"
-surrounded by nuclear envelope
Chromatin
-a form of DNA
-condenses into chromosomes
Cell Membrane
-found in plants and animals
-regulates what enters and leaves the cell
-made of lipids>>phospholipid bi-layer
Cytoplasm
-found in animals and plants
-fluid like substance where all organelles are suspended
-chemical reactions>> "Cytoplasmic streaming"
-form of movement that uses cytoskeleton
Ribosomes
-found in animals and plants
-where proteins are assembled
-made of small particles of RNA
Mitochondria
-found in animal cells
-converts energy from food into energy the cell can use-ATP
-"power house"
-enclosed by two membranes-inner and outer
Vacoule
-plant cells: central vacoule, holds H20, provides support, turbopressure.
-animal cells: smaller vacoules, holds H20 and minerals, ex. contractile vacoule
Golgi
-modifies, sorts, and packages from the endoplasmic reticulum (E.R) to send/ store out of cell.
-found in animals and plants
-"post-office"
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)
-found in animals and plants
-"highway" of cell
A.) smooth E.R; assembles lipids, proteins, and detoxifies
B.) rough E.R; ribosomes are found in E.R proteins
Lysosomes
-found in animal cells and sometimes plant
-"clean up crew"
-contain digestive enzymes
-can break down macromolecules and old cells
Cell wall
-found in plants, prokaryotic cells, fungi, and algae
-structure and support
-lets in gas and water
-made of cellulose
Chloroplasts
-found in plants
-chlorophil is the main pigment
-captures energy from the sun and uses it for food
-2 membranes
Cytoskeleton
-found in animals and plants
-maintains cell shape and structure
-made of micro-filaments (made of actin, cytoplasmic streamaing)
-microtubules (hollow, made of tubulin, cell division)
-centrioles: only in animal cells, cell division
Cilia
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface
Flagella
long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move