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A&P Chap 18
Terms in this set (38)
What is the name of the medial cavity of the thorax in which the heart resides?
What other structures are found in this cavity?
Pericardium- encloses heart
What is the name of the protective covering surrounding the heart?
What are its functions?
Protects and anchors the heart and prevents overfilling
What are the layers of this protective covering?
- 2 Serous - parietal and visceral
3 layers of the heart wall?
1. Fibrous pericardium
2. Serous Pericardium
3. Visceral serous pericardium
CT, surrounds heart and helps anchor great vessels to heart
Visceral serous pericardium
against heart muscle; produce fluid that fills pericardial space
produce fluid that fills pericardial space
What holds cardiac muscle into bundles?
Fibrous skeleton of the heart- composed of collagen and elastic fibers and provides addition support to great vessels
What are the four chambers of the heart and what separates them?
2. Interatrial Septum
4. Interventricular septum- seperates right and left ventricle
How do the muscular walls of the atria and ventricles differ?
Atria- superior; receive blood from veins; thin walled/ weak
Ventricles- Left and Right; blood delivered to them by atria and push blood out into vessels; thick muscular walls
How do the muscular walls of the left and right ventricles differ?
Left is thicker b/c pushes blood into body
How does this correspond to their functions?
Left pushes blood out into body and has to generate more force
What are the four great vessels associated with the heart?
Veins: vessels carry blood to heart
1. Vena Cava- superior (upper body) inferior (drains lower body) drain into right atrium
2. Pulmonary veins- bring blood back from lungs and drain blood into left atrium
Arteries: vessels carry blood away from heart
3. Aorta- carries blood away from left ventricle
4. Pulmonary trunk - carries blood away from right ventricle
What are the two types of heart valve?
AV- between atria and ventricles (left and right)
SL (semilunar valves)- between ventricles and major arteries
What is the function of a valve?
Prevents back flow of blood during heartbeat
Pathway of blood through the heart
2. Right atrium (blue b/c it deoxygenated blood)
3. Tricuspid valve
4. Right ventricle
5. Pulmonary SL valve
6. Pulmonary trunk/ arteries
7. LUNGS (red b/c blood is oxygenated)
8. Pulmonary Veins
9. Left atrium
10. Mitral valve
11. Left ventricle
12. Aortic SL valve
What is the role of coronary circulation?
Arteries and veins feed and drain blood to and away from cardiac muscle found in vessel wall
What are the noticeable physical characteristics of cardiac muscle cells?
Fairly short, branched and striated
What are the two-part cellular junctions that exist between cardiac muscle cells?
What are the two parts and what are their individual functions?
Gap junctions- cells communicate by sharing electrical signals
Desmosomes- cells help together that undergo repeated cell contraction (hold cells together- strong and flexible enough to allow tissue to change shape)
What are the functional characteristics of cardiac muscle?
Some cells are autorhythmic
- Spontaneously fire own Aps regularly
- But rhythm can be adjusted by ANS
Pacemaker cells set the ______ of heart contraction
Where are pacemaker cells found?
What is the specific function of each of the components of the conduction system?
- Node: cluster of pacemaker cells
- SA Node: in charge
- Papillary: corde tindenae contract to open the valve and keep them from getting sucked into the atria
In what order do muscular structures in the heart contract?
Atria→ Papilary→ Ventricular
End diastolic volume (EDV)
volume in ventricle following diastole/relaxation (volume after filling)
End systolic volume (ESV)
volume in ventricle following systole/contraction
Stroke volume (SV)
Amount of blood pumped/ejected by one ventricle within one beat
Cardiac reserve (CR)
The difference between COmax and COrest
How will SV and cardiac reserve change as a person becomes more athletically conditioned?
Numbers will go up, 7X the blood volume when exercising
# of beats per minute
Explain how the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS are involved in regulation of heart rate.
Sympathetic: More sodium channels open so it flows faster, doesn't take as long to get to threshold
Parasympathetic: Fewer channels open, takes longer to reach threshold which spaces AP out
Explain how preload, after load and contractility affect SV
Preload: Increases stroke volume, increase cardiac output, increase contractility
Afterload: increased BP in aorta, it becomes harder to eject same volume (Aka sv goes down), ESV increases
Contractility: increase SV because you contracting stronger
What is the Frank Starling Law of the Heart?
If you increase the stretch of cardiac muscle then you increase the force of its contraction
What are the two major factors that will increase contractility?
Endocrine regulating and sympathetic input (and preload)
What is contractility?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
A&P chapter 27
A&P chap 23
A&P chap 22
A&P Chap 17
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