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Terms in this set (48)

MRNA is messenger RNA (mRNA) aka messenger nucleic acid. it is an RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA (deoxyribo nucleic acid) to the rest of the cell. Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. tRNA are involved in protein synthesis, transfer RNA carries amino acids, It recognizes the codons of the mRNA on the one hand, and it can be covalently bonded to the appropriate amino acid, on the other.

is a complex of over 50 proteins plus its own complement of RNA, often denoted rRNA. it is composed of RNA, where ribosomes produce proteins.
2. What are the complimentary base pairs for the nucleic acids?

Adenine>> guanine>>>thymine>>>cytosine
24. What are homologous chromosomes?

member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division.
25. What are tumor suppressor genes? What are oncogenes?

gene that codes for a protein that ordinarily suppresses the cell cycle

cancer causing gene formed by a mutation in a proto-oncogene, codes for proteins that stimulate the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis.
12. What is an intron? Exon?

Intervening sequence found between exons in Mrna.

segment of mRNA containing the protein coding portion of a gene that remains within the mRNA after splicing has occurred.
What are the three causes for DNA mutation ?

Errors replication, mutagen, transposons.
3. What is the structure of DNA? What is the structure of RNA?

RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid.
RNA has a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar like DNA.
RNA nucleotides have a uracil base instead of thymine.
DNA is long and thick, and has a double helix = 2 strands.
11. What is a transposon?

DNA sequence capable of randomly moving from one site to another in the genome.
14. What are the riskfactors of cancer?

tobacco, obesity, alcohol use, HBV, sexually transmitted HPV-infection.
15. What is an operon?

group of structural and regulating genes that function as a single unit. in prokaryotes.
21. What is spermatogenesis and oogenesis? What are the differences between the two?

production of sperm in males.

production of eggs in females by the process of meiosis and maturation. makes 1 egg.
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What is an exon ?

segment of mRNA containing the protein coding portion of a gene that remains within the mRNA after splicing has occurred.
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What are the two broad processes that occur in gene expression ?

transcription and translation
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What is gene expression ?

the process of using a gene sequence to synthesize a protein.
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where are each located ?


codon- messenger RNA.