27 terms

Crime Psych Final Exam

Lombroso's "Born Criminal" theory (positivist school)
believed that criminals have a specific set of physical, psychological, physiological characteristics. (asymmetrical face; unusually small or large ears; low, receding forehead; insensitivity to pain; excitable; lazy; reckless; passion for gambling&alcohol)
Social Disorganization Theory
criminal behavior develops as a result of neighborhood ecological characteristics; core factor is social disorganization or lack of community values held in consensus
Cultural deviance theory
criminal behavior is the product of an organized rather than disorganized lower class subculture; crime occurs because of nonconformance to "middle class values" in America
Strain theory (Cohen)
Core factor of crime is ambition; lower class kids see themselves as failures and frustration develops ---> produces a delinquent subculture & delinquent behaviors
commit crimes because they're rebelling, not for success
Strain theory (Cloward and Ohlin)
strain is rational -- try to achieve success or satisfaction by an alternate route
Revised strain theory (Agnew)
strain results from frustration and anger; results from blockage of pain-avoidance rather than of goals/rewards
Social Control Theory
people are not "naturally good"; society has to mold us into being good, and does this through the social bond:
Attachment (children who attach to their parents will internalize society's norms and respect authority);
Commitment (dedication to the pursuit of conventional goals (having a stake in conformity);
Involvement (in conventional activities, more time at basketball);
Belief (belief in the morality of the law)
Four essentials in the social bond
attachment; commitment; involvement; belief
social control theory (revised)
importance of self-control added; reaffirms parents' role
Sociological Deterrence Theory (learning principles of punishment)
specific deterrence: prevents offender from recommitting crimes
general deterrence: prevents others who witness the punishment from committing crimes;
punishment must be certain*, severe, and quick
Differential Association Theory
criminal behavior is learned (usually within intimate personal groups); learning includes both (a) techniques of committing crimes and (b) motives, rationalizations and attitudes
Differential Association - Differential Reinforcement Theory
emphasizes reinforcement (social behavior strengthened by reward); maintains "association" importance
Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
focused on acquisition, instigation and maintenance of antisocial behavior; individuals tend to acquire the behaviors that they observe others enacting and being rewarded for
Vile Weed theory -- Social Interactionism Stage Model
looks at developmental causes of antisocial behavior; core causal variables are focused on parenting
Labeling theory
an individual's self concept is thought to exist only in the context of a society
primary deviance (labeling theory)
before labeling; delinquent acts that are not organized or consistent or frequent
secondary deviance (labeling theory)
after labeling; coherent organized commission of crime -- caused by the labeling process and how it changes self identity
revised labeling theory (Braithwaite)
disintegrative sharing (stimatizing and cutting off from society increases crime) and reintegrative sharing (shaming and reintegrating into society decreases crime)
Dodge Social Info Processing Theory
how your cognitions about the world around you can affect your propensity for aggression for aggression and crime
what are the four steps in the processing model?
search for obvious cues, interpret cues, consider possible responses, choose response and act on it
Kohlberg Moral Development Theory
focused on how people think about moral issues; six-stage model
what are the six stages in the Kohlberg Moral Development Theory?
1. obeys rules to avoid punishment
2. acts to obtain reward/get favors returned
3. acting in order to avoid other's disapproval
4. conforms to maintain authority
5. conforms for the sake of community welfare
6. acts to avoid self-condemnation
Biosocial theory: adolescent limited vs. life course persistent (Moffitt)
adolescence-limited: delinquency is rewarding; when delinquency is no longer rewarding, these offenders will desist

life-course persistent: biological risk + adverse social context = persistent risk for aggressive and violent behavior
Buikhuisen's Biosocial Theory of Chronic Delinquency
delinquency = "person" factors + "environment" factors

"person" -- biological, cognitive, psychological, psychiatric
"environment" --family, peers, neighborhood, social-political milieu

Eysenck's Personality Theory
three main dimensions of personality: extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism

criminals should be high on all three
investigative psychology
based on five aspects of the interaction between the criminal and the victim:
interpersonal coherence, significance of the time and place, criminal characteristics, criminal career, forensic awareness
organized vs. disorganized killers (crime scene differences)