Chapter 18 Cold War Conflicts Notes
The Americans, Texas Edition. Chapter 18. Notes
Terms in this set (51)
What caused suspicions between the US and the USSR during WW2?
Americans were suspicious because Soviets were an ally of Nazi Germany. Soviets were suspicious because Americans delayed starting the attack on Germany.
How did the US and USSR relate to each other at the UN?
They used it to control or influence other nations.
What happened at the Potsdam Conference?
No free elections in the Soviet occupied Europe and reparations would be taken from only the occupied parts of Germany.
What caused the tension between the USSR and the US after the war?
Germany reunification question
What was the essence of the disagreement between the US and the USSR in Europe?
The Soviets installing communist govts in Europe.
How were the US and the USSR different?
US = democratic, capitalism USSR = dictatorship, communism
What action did the USSR take in Europe that was opposed by the US?
Blockade of West Berlin
What did Stalin do to make Truman distrust him?
Stalin would not allow free elections in Eastern Europe
What were Truman's goals in establishing the policy of containment?
To stop the spread of the Soviet Communists
What was the Truman Doctrine?
The policy of US to support free peoples who are resisting being converted or conquered by other peoples
What was the Marshall Plan?
providing aid to all European countries that needed help
What caused Stalin to close access to West Berlin?
Stalin wanted to take West Berlin
What were the effects of the Berlin Airlift?
It broke the Soviet blockade, increased American prestige and reduced Soviet prestige.
How did the Americans get supplies to West Berlin?
Why was the NATO alliance formed?
So to support all other nations in the event of aggression or war
What started civil war again in China?
Defeat of Japan.
What was the outcome of the civil war in China?
Communist controlled China.
What factors led to the Communist takeover in China?
The Nationalists were corrupt and non-supportive of the peasants. The Communists had strong leadership, and they worked to win peasant support.
How did the outcome of the Chinese civil war affect American politics?
People blamed the American govt as having communist that helped China.
How did Korea become divided after WW2?
North Korea surrendered to the Soviets and South Korea surrendered to the Americans.
How did the Korean War start?
North Korea invades South Korea.
Why did the US go to the aid of South Korea?
It was through the UN.
What did MacArthur's counterattack at Inchon accomplish?
It saved the South Korea and captured most of North Korean army.
What brought China into the war?
When the UN reached the Yalu River.
What caused the disagreement between MacArthur and Truman?
MacArthur wanted to wage full-scale NUCLEAR war against China. Truman wanted limited warfare.
How did the Korean War end?
It was a stalemate.
How did the involvement of communist China affect the Korean War?
Just as UN forces had overtaken North Korea, the Chinese entered the war for North Korea and pushed UN troops southward.
Why were Americans worried about the security of the US?
Because of communism spreading
What was the purpose of the Loyalty Review Board?
Investigate govt employees and to fire those that were disloyal. Individuals were not allowed to see the evidence against them.
What did the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) do?
investigations into communist influence in the American movie industry
Who were the Hollywood Ten?
men that decided not to cooperate because they believed that the hearings were unconstitutional
Why was Hollywood a target of anti-Communist investigations by Congress?
HUAC believed that Hollywood was sneaking propaganda into films. They believed that the pro-Soviet films of WW2 were the beginning of it.
Why was State Department official Alger Hiss investigated?
Because of accusations of being a communist spy
Who were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg?
Members of the communist party that were accused of helping give Soviets the plans for the atomic bomb.
Why did the cases of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs heighten the anti-Communist mood of Americans?
They added to the impression that the US was being betrayed by Communist spies.
What was controversial about McCarthy's tactics?
He accused people with no evidence
Why did most Republicans remain silent about McCarthy's "Witch Hunt"?
The Republicans wanted to win the next elections.
What caused McCarthy's downfall?
He started to accuse the army of having communist
What other anti-Communist measures were enacted in the early 1950s?
loyalty oaths, and making it illegal to overthrow the govt by violence
How does the Hydrogen Bomb differ from the atomic bomb?
It was 60 times more powerful than the bomb over Hiroshima
What was the policy of brinkmanship?
The willingness of the US and USSR to go to THE EDGE of all out war
How did the US and the USSR start the arms race?
By developing more powerful weapons, including the H-bomb.
What was the role of the CIA in the Cold War?
To gather intelligences and to carry out secret operations against unfriendly govts.
What was the Warsaw Pact?
Military alliance in support of the USSR.
What happened at the Geneva Summit?
USSR rejected Eisenhower's plan to allow flights over its territory.
How did conflict over the Suez Canal start a war in the Middle East?
Egypt nationalized the canal and prevented Israel from using it. Britain, France and Israel took the Mediterranean end of the canal.
What were the results of the Suez War?
Britain, France, and Israel withdrew from the Mediterranean end of the canal and control of the canal passed to Egypt.
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
The US would defend the Middle East from communism
What happened during the Hungarian uprising?
The new Hungarian govt kicked out the Soviets but the Soviets squashed the revolution and invaded.
How did the Soviet launch of Sputnik affect the US?
Americans were shocked and then pushed all efforts to launch a satellite.
How did the U-2 flight of Francis Powers influence US-USSR relations?
There was a greater tension between the 2 superpowers.
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