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Which ECM molecule provides structure while allowing certain tissues to expand and contract (e.g., lungs during breathing, intestine during digestion)?
This polysaccharide is an important ECM component for the exoskeleton of many insects and shellfish.
This forms a seal that prevents the movement of substances between cells, for instance from the intestinal lumen into the blood.
One can inject dyes of different sizes into a liver cell and determine those molecules that can readily pass through gap junctions. What sized molecules can pass through gap junctions?
< 1,000 Daltons
Which of the cell adhesion molecules is critical to transducing changes in the ECM to a change in the cell?
Once inside the cell, lipid-soluble hormones ________
bind with a specific receptor molecule inside the cytoplasm
After the lipid-soluble hormones bind with a specific receptor, __________
the receptor-hormone complex binds with a DNA molecule to produce a mRNA molecule
In _______, signals pass through a cell junction from one cell to adjacent cells
direct intracellular signaling
Membrane-bound signals bind to receptors on adjacent cells in the process of ___________
Cells release signals that travel long distances to affect target cells during _________
Intracellular receptors are activated by signaling molecules that ________ the plasma membrane
Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for carrying out photosynthesis in plants and algae
The addition of an oxygen molecule to ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) resulting in phosphoglycolate is most accurately referred to as ___________
Calvin Cycle reactions occur in the ____________, while light reactions occur in the __________
stroma, thylakoid membrane
When an electron absorbs energy and exists in an excited state, the electron can________
drop back down to its original energy level and release light, be removed from one molecule and transferred to a different molecule, and drop back down to its original energy level and release heat
The absorption of light in PSII results in an electron with a higher energy level than was attained in PSI.
C$ plants are particularly suited for conditions of high temperatures and intense sunlight due to _____________
the physical separation of mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells
A ligand is most accurately defined as a(n) __________
enzyme that phosphorylates amino acids of other proteins
The small molecules or ions that bind surface receptors in the plasma membrane of a cell are most accurately referred to as __________
Neurotransmitters being released from a nerve cell and binding to another nerve cell or a muscle cell would be an example of which type of cell signaling?
What is the type of cell signaling used when a signal molecule stimulates all surrounding cells, as well as the signaling cell?
Most types of enzyme-linked receptors function by __________
phosphorylation of a protein from ATP in their intracellular domain
An enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to another molecule is called a __________, and an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from another molecule is called a __________
Activated subunits of PKA are inactivated when they reassociate with the regulatory subunits in the presence of low levels of cAMP
Gap junctions rely on the functioning of membrane proteins called cell adhesion molecules or CAMs.
Loewenstein determined that the size exclusion of a gap junction is approximately __________
Plasmodesmata are __________
the function equivalent in plant cells of gap junctions in animal cells
The covalent linkage that connects monomers in a nucleic acid macromolecule is most accurately referred to as a(n) __________
The first way that DNA is compacted is by wrapping itself around a group of proteins called __________
Wrapping around the histones, and the formation of the 30 nm fiber shorten the folded DNA by __________
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