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The ______ of the ECM allows cartilage to resist compression


The ECM provides _____ for animal skeletons

structural support

The role of the ECM in cell ______ is important for the attachment of tendons to bones


The role of the ECM in sensing the environment is provided by its ______ function

cell signaling

The _________ is flexible and allows cells to increase in size

primary cell wall

The ______ provides considerable strength for the plant cell

secondary cell wall

the main component of the cell wall is ______


In plants, _______ is a metabolite that hardens the wall


Plant cell wall polysaccharides are made of repeating ______ molecules


Plant cells are attached to each other by the ________

middle lamella

Animal cells attach to each other using _______ proteins

cell junction

Junctions called _______ permit communication between plant cells


Animal cells use _________ to attach to the ECM


Animal cells form close seals between cells using ________

tight junctions

Cell connections called ________ help adjacent animal cells communicate

gap junctions

In animals, which of the following structures is largely composed of ECM?


What is NOT a function of the ECM?

provides an important source of energy for the organism

Which ECM molecule provides tensile strength?


State the best description about the ECM

its components are produced and secreted by the cell

The major macromolecules of the ECM are polysaccharides and _______


Which ECM molecule provides structure while allowing certain tissues to expand and contract (e.g., lungs during breathing, intestine during digestion)?


This polysaccharide is an important ECM component for the exoskeleton of many insects and shellfish.


This forms a seal that prevents the movement of substances between cells, for instance from the intestinal lumen into the blood.

tight junctions

What structure cements plant cells together?

middle lamella

One can inject dyes of different sizes into a liver cell and determine those molecules that can readily pass through gap junctions. What sized molecules can pass through gap junctions?

< 1,000 Daltons

Which of the cell adhesion molecules is critical to transducing changes in the ECM to a change in the cell?


The alpha subunit of the G-protein is activated by _________

replacing the GDP with GTP

The activated alpha subunit binds to______

the calcium ion channel

Initially bound to the alpha subunit of G protein is _______

GDP molecule

Lipid-soluble hormones________

diffuse through the cell membrane

Once inside the cell, lipid-soluble hormones ________

bind with a specific receptor molecule inside the cytoplasm

After the lipid-soluble hormones bind with a specific receptor, __________

the receptor-hormone complex binds with a DNA molecule to produce a mRNA molecule

In _______, signals pass through a cell junction from one cell to adjacent cells

direct intracellular signaling

Membrane-bound signals bind to receptors on adjacent cells in the process of ___________

contact-dependent signaling

In _______, cells release signals that affect nearby target cells

paracrine signaling

Cells release signals that travel long distances to affect target cells during _________

endocrine signaling

Intracellular receptors are activated by signaling molecules that ________ the plasma membrane

pass through

In extracellular signaling, ligands bind to ________

cell surface receptors

Most types of enzyme-linked receptors function as __________

protein kinases

In mammals, receptors for ________ are intracellular

steroid hormones

What is the advantage of second messengers?

amplification of the signal

Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for carrying out photosynthesis in plants and algae


CO2 from the atmosphere is utilized during the light reaction as a source of carbon.


The addition of an oxygen molecule to ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) resulting in phosphoglycolate is most accurately referred to as ___________


Calvin Cycle reactions occur in the ____________, while light reactions occur in the __________

stroma, thylakoid membrane

Pigments are molecules that are able to deflect light energy


When an electron absorbs energy and exists in an excited state, the electron can________

drop back down to its original energy level and release light, be removed from one molecule and transferred to a different molecule, and drop back down to its original energy level and release heat

A primary electron acceptor in PSII is __________


The absorption of light in PSII results in an electron with a higher energy level than was attained in PSI.


The most common storage form of carbohydrate in chloroplasts is _____


C$ plants are particularly suited for conditions of high temperatures and intense sunlight due to _____________

the physical separation of mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells

The first product synthesized from photosynthesis in CAM plants is ______


Photorespiration occurs when O2 levels are high and CO2 levels are low


A response by a living cell to a change in its environment is called __________


A ligand is most accurately defined as a(n) __________

enzyme that phosphorylates amino acids of other proteins

The small molecules or ions that bind surface receptors in the plasma membrane of a cell are most accurately referred to as __________

first messengers

Cyclic AMP may be synthesized by adenylyl cyclase via ATP


Neurotransmitters being released from a nerve cell and binding to another nerve cell or a muscle cell would be an example of which type of cell signaling?

paracrine signaling

What is the type of cell signaling used when a signal molecule stimulates all surrounding cells, as well as the signaling cell?

autocrine signaling

Ligands bind so specifically to their receptors because the interactions are covalent


Most types of enzyme-linked receptors function by __________

phosphorylation of a protein from ATP in their intracellular domain

the receptor for the steroid hormone 'estrogen' is found __________

in the nucleus

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases can be found in__________


An enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to another molecule is called a __________, and an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from another molecule is called a __________

kinase, phosphate

Activated subunits of PKA are inactivated when they reassociate with the regulatory subunits in the presence of low levels of cAMP


What is the cellular function of a G-protein?

activate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C

What is an advantage of second messengers?

speed and size

Gap junctions rely on the functioning of membrane proteins called cell adhesion molecules or CAMs.


What is not a major protein component of the ECM in animals?


Collagens are __________, which form a __________

proteins, triple helix

Which molecule would likely be found in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum?


Which cell junction is found in plants?


A(n) __________ relies on a cell adhesion molecule called an integrin

focal adhesion

A(n) __________ relies on a cell adhesion molecule called a cadherin

adherins junction

What type of protein would be found in a tight junction?


What molecule cannot pass through a gap junction?


Loewenstein determined that the size exclusion of a gap junction is approximately __________

900 Daltons

Pectins can be found in both the primary cell wall and middle lamella in plants


Plasmodesmata are __________

the function equivalent in plant cells of gap junctions in animal cells

The covalent linkage that connects monomers in a nucleic acid macromolecule is most accurately referred to as a(n) __________

phosphodiester linkage

The first way that DNA is compacted is by wrapping itself around a group of proteins called __________


The amount of DNA required to wrap around the histone octamer is __________ base pairs


Nucleosomes are organized into a more compact structure that is __________ in diameter

30 nm

The 30 nm fiber forms __________

3D zigzag

Wrapping around the histones, and the formation of the 30 nm fiber shorten the folded DNA by __________


The term __________ is used to describe the highly compacted regions of chromosomes


The term __________ is use to describe the less condensed regions of chromosomes


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