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The Cold War and Beyond

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Containment - Key Points
the Soviet Union dominated much of eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War II. Winston Churchill warned that "an iron curtain has descended across the continent."
containment was a foreign policy designed to contain or block Soviet expansion
containment was the primary US foreign policy from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
Containment - The Truman Doctrine
the immediate goal of the Truman Doctrine was to block the expansion of Soviet influence into Greece and Turkey
on March 12, 1947, President Harry Truman asked Congress for $400 million in economic aid for Greece and Turkey
Truman justified the aid by declaring that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugations by armed minorities or by outside pressures." this sweeping pledge became known as the Truman Doctrine
Containment - The Marshall Plan
WW2 left western Europe devastated and vulnerable to Soviet influence
the Marshall Plan was a program of economic aid designed to promote the recovery of war-torn Europe while also preventing the spread of Soviet influence
the Marshall Plan dramatically increased American political and economic influence in western and southern Europe
Containment - The NATO Alliance
10 western European nations joined with the United States and Canada to form a defensive military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO coordinated defense preparations among the nations of western Europe.
the NATO alliance marked a decisive break from America's tradition of isolationism
Containment - The Warsaw Pact
the Soviet Union responded to NATO by forming the Warsaw Pact
the alliance linked the Soviet Union with 7 eastern European countries: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
Containment - The Berlin Airlift
the Allies failed to agree on a peace treaty with Germany
in 1945, the Allies divided Germany into 4 occupation zones, one each for the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. the city of Berlin lay 110 miles inside the Soviet occupation zone. like Germany, it was divided into 4 occupation zones.
fearing a resurgent Germany, the Soviet Union cut off Western land access to West Berlin. this action provoked the first great Cold War test of wills between the United States and the Soviet Union
President Truman ordered a massive airlift of food, fuel, and other supplies to the beleaguered citizens of West Berlin.
the Berlin Airlift marked a crucial and successful test of containment
following the Berlin Airlift, the United States, Great Britain, and France created the Federal Republic of Germany or West Germany. the Soviet Union responded by establishing the East German state, the German Democratic Republic.
The Revival of Western Europe - Economic Integration
The European Coal and Steel Community
Jean Monnet, a French economic planner, convinced the French Premier Robert Schuman that economic cooperation would be the key to future prosperity between France and West Germany.
the Schuman Plan, as the project became known, led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
the ECSC called for tariff-free trade in coal and steel among France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
The Revival of Western Europe - Economic Integration
The European Economic Community (Common Market)
the ECSC proved to be a success. as a result, in 1957, its 6 member nations signed the Treaty of Rome creating the European Economic Community (EEC), popularly known as the Common Market.
the EEC eliminated trade barriers among its members, thus closely resembling a tariff union
the EEC rapidly emerged as the driving force behind economic integration in western Europe
The Revival of Western Europe - The Christian Democrats
Christian Democratic parties endorsed economic growth, European integration, national health insurance, aid to farmers, and political democracy
key Christian Democrat leaders included Konrad Adenauer in West Germany, Alcide de Gasperi in Italy, and Robert Schuman in France
the Christian Democrats accepted Keynesian economic theory. according to Keynesian economics, government should play a leading role in stimulating economic growth.
The Revival of Western Europe - Charles de Gualle (1890-1870)
General Charles de Gaulle established the Fifth French Republic in 1958. he served as president until 1969.
de Gaulle's key foreign policy decisions included:
-granting Algeria full independence
-withdrawing French military forces from NATO
-developing France's own nuclear weapons
-opposing Great Britain's entry into the EEC
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1956-1964 - Stalin's Last Years
following World War II, Joseph Stalin imposed new 5-Year Plans emphasizing extensive industrialization.
Stalin insisted on absolute obedience. dissent brought imprisonment, slave labor, or death.
Stalin's reign of terror came to an abrupt end with his death in 1953. after a brief period of "collective leadership" Nikita Khrushchev emerged as the Soviet Union's unrivaled leader.
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1956-1964 - Khrushchev's Secret Speech
in 1956, Khrushchev boldly attacked Stalin in a "secret speech" delivered as the Twentieth Communist Party Congress in Moscow.
Khrushchev denounced Stalin's reign of terror and repudiated his "cult of personality."
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1945-1964 - De-Stalinization
Khrushchev's program of de-Stalinization involved all the following:
-shifting some resources toward producing more consumer goods
-curbing the power of the secret police
-granting more freedom to writers and intellectuals
de-Stalinization permitted Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn to publish One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. this short but powerful novel described the horrors in a Stalinist concentration camp.
Boris Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago illustrated the limits of de-Stalinization. the novel celebrated the human spirit and challenged the principles of communism. although it was published in the west, Soviet censors denounced Pasternak and refused to let him receive the Nobel Prize for Literature.
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1954-1964 - Sputnik
in 1957, a beaming Khrushchev proudly announced that the Soviet Union had successfully launched a 184-pound satellite named Sputnik into orbit around the earth
Sputnik quickly became a symbol of Soviet technological prowess. Sputnik's success played a key role in contributing to the space race between the Soviet Union and the United States
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1956-1964 - Cold War Confrontations
The Berlin Wall
between 1949 and 1961, more than 3 million East Germans fled to West Germany by crossing into West Berlin.
on August 13, 1961, the East Germans, with Khrushchev's support, began construction of a concrete wall along the border between East and West Berlin.
the Berlin Wall stopped the flow of refugees while at the same time becoming a symbol of Communist oppression
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1956-1964 - Cold War Confrontations
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis by constructing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
after a tense confrontation with the US, Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles in exchange for a US promise to not attack Fidel Castro.
the Cuban Missile Crisis undermined Khrushchev's credibility and played a key role in his ouster from power in 1964
The Soviet Union under Khrushchev, 1956-1964 - Eastern Europe
de-Stalinization raised hopes fore more freedom in Eastern Europe. a wave of strikes and protests swept across East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary
the protests in Hungary quickly escalated into a major crisis when Hungary's liberal Communist leader, Imre Nagy, promised free elections and called for the removal of Soviet troops
Khrushchev responded by ordering the Red Army to invade Hungary. after intense fighting, the Soviets crushed the rebellion and executed Nagy.
the United States did not assist Hungary because it lay within the Soviet sphere of influence
The Soviet Union under Brezhnev, 1964-1982 - Stagnation
conservative leaders believed that Khrushchev's program of de-Stalinization posed a threat to the Communist Party's dictatorial powers
now led by Leonid Brezhnev, the Communist Party clamped down on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Andrei Sakharov, and other outspoken dissidents.
Brezhnev's hard line policies led to a prolonged period of political repression and economic stagnation
The Soviet Union under Brezhnev, 1964- 1982 - Czechoslovakia and the Brezhnev Doctrine
in Czechoslovakia, a new communist leader, Alexander Dubcek, initiated a program of democratic reforms saying he wanted to create "socialism with a human face."
alarmed by Dubcek's reforms, Brezhnev called on other Warsaw Pact countries to invade Czechoslovakia and remove Dubcek from power
Brezhnev justified the invasion by claiming that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in the domestic affairs of other communist countries. this declaration became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine.
the United States refrained from taking any action because Czechoslovakia lay within the Soviet sphere of influence
The Soviet Union under Brezhnev, 1964-1982 - Détente
President Richard Nixon initiated a policy of détente to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union. the 2 superpowers agreed to limit nuclear arms and expand trade.
the Helsinki Accords ratified the European territorial boundaries established after World War II and committed the signers to recognize and protect basic human rights.
The Collapse of European Communism - Gorbachev's Reforms
in March 1985, members of the Politburo, the Communist Party's top decision-making group, selected Mikhail Gorbachev as the new leader of the Soviet Union
when Gorbachev took power, the Soviet Union was still the world's most feared totalitarian dictatorship. but Gorbachev recognized that "something was wrong." blaming poor living conditions on the country's rigid political system and stagnant economy, he launched an unprecedented program of reforms.
glasnost
perestroika
demokratizatsiya
The Collapse of European Communism - Gorbachev's Reforms
Glasnost
Soviet leaders from Vladimir Lenin to Brezhnev created a totalitarian state that controlled the mass media and restricted human rights
in 1986, Gorbachev introduced a new policy known as glasnost, or openness, which encouraged Soviet citizens to discuss ways to reform their society
The Collapse of European Communism - Gorbachev's Reforms
Perestroika
glasnost gave Soviet citizens an opportunity to complain publicly about their economic problems
in 1986, Gorbachev launched a program called perestroika, or economic restructuring, to revitalize the Soviet economy
The Collapse of European Communism - Gorbachev's Reforms
Demokratizatsiya
Gorbachev understood that in order for the economy to thrive, the Communist Party would have to loosen its grip on Soviet society
in 1989, Gorbachev unveiled a third new policy called demokratizatsiya, or democratization. the plan called for the election of a new legislature, the 2,250 member Congress of People's Deputies
The Collapse of European Communism - Making Comparisons: Stalin and Gorbachev
Stalin
rejected the relatively free markets created by Lenin's New Economic Policy
implemented a series of 5-Year Plans that promoted state planning and industrialization
forced peasant farmers to work on huge state-run and state-owned farms called collectives
purged party leaders who showed the slightest degree of dissent from his policies
imprisoned and executed millions of Soviet citizens
created a rigid totalitarian state
imposed Soviet control over eastern Europe
The Collapse of European Communism - Making Comparisons: Stalin and Gorbachev
Gorbachev
advocated private ownership of property and free markets
allowed public discussion and criticism of Communist Party policies
permitted openly contested elections
allowed national minorities within the Soviet Union to express pent-up grievances
encouraged East Europeans to reform their political systems without fear of Soviet armed intervention
raised expectations in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe for greater freedom
The Collapse of European Communism - Poland and Solidarity
the people of Poland were the first to test Gorbachev's new policies
led by Lech Walsea, Polish workers formed a democratic trade union called Solidarity
Pope John Paul II provided crucial support for the Solidarity labor movement in Poland
in 1989, Polish voters overwhelmingly rejected the Communist Party and elected Solidarity candidates. this marked the first time the people of a nation peacefully turned a Communist regime out of power
The Collapse of European Communism - The Fall of the Berlin Wall
inspired by the events in Poland, the people of East Germany demanded change in their government
on November 9, 1989, a new East German leader opened the Berlin Wall. the reunification of Germany occurred less than one year later. these watershed events marked the end of the Cold War in Eastern Europe.
The Collapse of European Communism - The Collapse of the Soviet Union
the collapse of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe inspired ethnic groups within the Soviet Union
Gorbachev's policy of glasnost loosened controls, enabling ethnic protests to spread across the Soviet Union
in a last desperate effort to preserve the Soviet Union, Communist hard-liners attempted to overthrow Gorbachev with a military coup
the hard-liners assumed that a show of force would ensure obedience. they were wrong. under Gorbachev's reforms people had lost their fear of the party and were willing to defend their freedom.
led by Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic, the Russian people thwarted the coup
on December 25, 1991, Gorbachev announced his resignation as president of a country that by then had ceased to exist. one former colleague observed sadly "he tried to reform the unreformable"
Key Social and Demographic Trends - Key Demographic Trends
European birth rates rose in 1950s but then began a sustained decline
as a result of decolonization, former colonial peoples migrated to Europe
immigration from North Africa and the Middle East created significant Muslim populations in many Western European countries
attracted by economic opportunities, southern Europeans migrated to northern Europe
Key Social and Demographic Trends - Key Changes in Women's Rights and Roles
led by Simone de Beauvoir, European feminists called attention to social problems that women faced also emphasized the need for women to control their own lives
major feminist goals included the following:
-expanded employment opportunities
-expanded child-care facilities
-improved access to birth control information
-liberalized divorce laws
during the postwar period, European women married earlier and had fewer children
employment rates for married women dramatically increased
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