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Terms in this set (51)
half of plate is fruits and vegetables, other half is protein and grains with dairy as "cup" (includes solid dairy products as well)
recommend low-fat dairy choices, making half of grains whole grain
cut back on foods high in solid fats, sugars, and salt
eat right amount of calories for you *be physically active your own way
target zone for healthy eating
threshold=recommended dietary allowance (RDA) or adequate intake (AI)
target zone is at or above threshold
trends for carb consumption
1910-more complex than simple carbohydrates consumed1950-equal consumption 1980-more simple than complex carbohydrates consumed
complex-bread, pasta, rice are broken down slower
simple-candy(sucrose, glucose, fructose) lead to quick increases in blood sugar and promote fat deposition
factors leading to high-level performance
health-related fitness (health and training)
skill-related fitness-abilities that help you learn skills faster and better *skills (enhanced by practice)
training for endurance
long-slow distance training for endurance (LSD training)-extended periods of aerobic exercise
emphasis on the duration or length rather than speed
improves muscles' ability to take up and use oxygen in the bloodstream and ability to produce energy from fat stores
should be performed once every 1-2 weeks with a rest day to allow body to recover *regular anaerobic training will help resist fatigue in aerobic activities
repeated bouts of high-level aerobic and anaerobic training, repeated bouts of activity followed by rest
by providing periodic rest you can increase the overall intensity of exercise and provide greater stimulus to the body *can be done at lower intensity to improve aerobic metabolism or high intensity to improve anaerobic capacity
training for power
considered most functional mode in which all human motion occurs
amount of work per unit of time (to increase must do more work in the same time or same work in less time)
strength-related power-working against heavy resistance at slower speeds
speed-related power-high speeds with relatively low resistance
training technique used to develop explosive power
use of concentric-isotonic contractions performed after a pre stretch or an eccentric contraction of a muscles (box jumps)
good flexibility is recommended because eccentric exercise tends to result in more muscle soreness
skill related fitness guidelines for high performance training
having skill related fitness can make it easier to learn necessary skills for competitive sports
often called motor fitness or sports fitness *guidelines: need to continually challenge the body (overload principle), rest and history of regular exercise are needed to reduce risks for overuse injuries
manipulating repetition, resistance, and exercise selection (periodic peaks and valleys)
intensity increases in each microcycle
overall training stimulus increases throughout mesocycle
usually focused on preparing someone for a competition *tapering plan as closer to competition (reductions in both intensity and volume of training for recovery)
athletes push themselves too hard and do not allow time for rest
susceptible to hyperkinetic conditions (overload syndrome)
characterized by fatigue, irritability, and sleep problems
lower beat-to-beat variability indicates fatigue or overtraining
methods to assess body comp
DXA ("gold standard")-uses 2 energy sources estimate the density of the body, machine scans along the body
Underwater weighing-person weighed in air & underwater, and the difference in weight is used to assess the levels of body fatness (limitation: person must expel all air)
Bod Pod-same as underwater weighing but relies on air displacement (more for obese older people and challenged)
Skin fold measurements
bioelectric impedance analysis
performed quickly and is more effective for people high in body fatness (limitation for skin folds)
Electrodes placed on the body and low doses of current (muscles are better conductors) *Portable BIA scales less accurate
use absorption of light to estimate body fatness
originally developed to measure the fat content of meats *not effective for estimating body fat
health risks of obesity
second leading actual cause of death (obesity rates increased by 85% in the last two years)
40% higher risk of shortening lifespan
upper body fat more likely in men ("android fat")
lower body fat more likely in women ("gynoid fat") *metabolic syndrome (altering levels of adipokines)
health risks of low body weight
anorexia nervosa, binge-eating, bulimia, anorexia athletica
triad-three related and linked symptoms that affect women athletes (eating disorders/low energy, amenorrhea, and decreased bone mineral density)
low body fat leads to amenorrhea leading to low levels of estrogen which could lead to low bone density and osteoporosis
muscle dysmorphia-male thinks his body is not sufficiently lean/muscular
fear of obesity
most common among achievement-oriented teenagers who impose self-restricion on caloric intake
consequences: stunting growth, delayed puberty, delayed sexual development, and decreased physical attractiveness
concept that describes the way the body protests current weight and resists change
can accommodate to a higher set-point if weight gain takes place but greater resistance to lower set-point *leptin plays role in altering appetite and speeding up/slowing down metabolism (rise during times of energy excess and fall when energy levels are low)
fatness early in life
leads to fatness as adult
causes body to produce more fat cells *environment may influence future risks for obesity
basal metabolic rate
typically expressed in number of calories needed to maintain body functions under resting conditions
more lean and more physically active=higher BMR *highest during growing years
body fat increases gradually with age (less active=decreases in BMR)
average person gains .5-1 pound per year *not active=caloric intake is 10% less at 65 years than 25 years
common skin fold sites
chest, axilla, tricep, subscapular, abdomen, supraillium, thigh
Jackson and Pollock sites
Males-chest, abdomen, thighFemales-thigh, triceps, supraillium
________ muscle fibers contract slowly and are highly resistant to fatigue.
The shape of the ________ determines the amount of movement possible at each joint.
Stretching by slowly lengthening the muscle to a point where further movement is limited and holding that position for a fixed period of time is referred to as ________.
An isotonic contraction refers to a static contraction against an immovable object.
The stretch reflex is a muscle contraction that occurs in response to a fast muscle stretch.
Increases in muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and muscle size (hypertrophy)
Muscle growth occurs when
The four muscles, or sets of muscles, that contribute to proper posture to avoid low back pain are the abdominal muscles, hamstrings, erector spinae muscles, and the ________ muscles.
The physiologic 3 dimensional cylinder encompassing the body's center of gravity include(s)
decreased resting metabolic rate & body composition
All are benefits of increased flexibility EXCEPT
As you increase your strength and muscular fitness it often becomes hard to keep improving? Which principle does this reflect?
shortened back musclesshortened ab muscles long hip flexors long hamstrings
Proper posture is determined by maintaining balanced muscle strength. Which muscle groups would have the greatest effect on strength in relating to good posture.
A muscle contraction that occurs as the muscle shortens is referred to as ________.
Progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is the application of the overload principle for strength and endurance exercise programs.
Special muscle receptors that sense a stretch response are referred to as ________.
increase endurance exercise capacity
Which of the following is a benefit of a regular strength-training program?
The anatomical factors that limit range of motion in a joint are bones, muscles, the tendons that connect muscle to bones and the connective tissue surrounding joints
Which movement could be defined as risky or questionable exercise?
A motor nerve and all the fibers that it controls is called a ________.
Muscle spindles are special muscle sensors that respond to being suddenly stretched; they respond by producing a muscle contraction called the all or none theory.
A fully relaxed sarcomere consists of all of the characteristics EXCEPT
Which muscle is a global stabilizer
PNF stands for ________ neuromuscular facilitation
3 sets of 6 reps
To improve muscular strength, a prescription of ________ for each exercise is generally recommended
The reaction that occurs when a muscle is suddenly stretched and therefore stimulates muscle spindles is called ________.
Fiber recruitment is the process of involving more muscle fibers to increase muscular force. The lighter the weight lifted, the greater the number of fibers needed to generate sufficient force
A regular strength-training program increases resting metabolic rate
The downward phase of a biceps curl is an example of what type of muscle movement?
The intensity of exercise in a weight-training program is measured by ________.
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