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Definition of CA
media determines the important issues we think about
What kind of communication is CA?
Why is CA a critical theory?
because it encourages people to do something to change the status quo.
What are the assumptions of CA?
Television is different from other forms of mass media,Television shapes our society's ways of thinking and relating, The influence of television is limited
What is the 'ice age' analogy?
just as an average temperature shift of a few degrees can lead to an ice age or the outcomes of elections can be determined by slight margins, so too can a relatively small but pervasive influence make a crucial difference.
What are the goals of CA theory?
-CA explains and predicts the influence of media on viewers' perceived reality.
-CA is also a critical theory, because it encourages people to do something to change the status quo.
What is the concept of cultivation?
the power of the media (TV) on peoples perceptions of reality
What is mainstreaming?
As a result of heavy viewing, peoples constructed social realities more toward the mainstream, not a mainstream in the political sense but a culturally dominant reality that is more similar to TV's reality than to any measurable objective external reality.
What is resonance?
when things on TV are in fact congruent with viewers actual everyday realities. Defined as a behavior that occurs when a viewers lived reality coincides w/the reality pictured in the media
What are first order effects?
learning facts from the media
Ex. How many employed males are involved in law enforcement
What are second order effects?
learning values and assumptions from the media
Ex. Questions like do you think people are basically honest?
CA theorists argued that TV produces perceptions of a mean world index?
-Most people are just looking out for themselves
-You can't be too careful in dealing with people
-Most people would take advantage of you if they got the chance
What are the 3 B's?
Blurring traditional distinctions
Ex. Educated people see the world similarly to those who have less education
Ex. We agree on whats real
Bending the mainstream reality to benefit the elite
Ex. We all want to buy more products
What is PROD?
Proportional representation of diversity: Goal of the index was to examine the distortion in representation of various co-cultures; the index determined how well or poorly groups were represented on TV relative to their numbers in the population.
What are CA's strengths?
-One of the most frequently used theory in mass communication
What are the criticisms?
-Research methods do not match conceptual reach
-Ignores perceived realism
Test of Time
-Times and media use are changing
What is the meta theoretical stance?
Social Scientific and Critical Approach
What is Uses and Gratification theory?
-Media has a limited effect because of user control
-People are selective and choose media to satisfy their needs
-What do people do with media?
What kind of communication is Uses and gratification?
Why was the U&G theory developed?
Stage one: extending the needs and motivation theory (Maslow)
Stage two: Creating typologies representing reasons for media use table 23.1
Stage three: Linking specific reasons for media use with other variables
What are the 5 assumptions of the U&G theory?
-The audience is active and its media use is goal oriented
-The initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium choice rests with the audience member
-The media compete with other sources for need satisfaction
-People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests, and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use
-Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience
defined as escaping from routines or daily problems- a category of gratifications coming from media use, involves escaping from routines and problems
which occurs when people substitute the media for companionship- a category of gratifications coming from media use, involves substituting media for companionship
ways to reinforce individual's values
information about how media will help an individual accomplish something
What is active audience?
-A variable concept focused on an audience engaging with the media on a voluntary basis, motivated by their needs and goals
Types of Audience activity associated with media consumption: Utility
using media to accomplish specific tasks
Ex. People listen to car radio to find out about traffic
They go online to download CDS
They read fashion magazines to find out about the latest styles
Types of Audience activity associated with media consumption: Intentionality
a cognitive behavior that occurs when people's prior motives determine the use of media
Ex. When people want to be entertained, they tune to comedy
When they want greater detail about a news story, they tune to CNN or other news channels
Types of Audience activity associated with media consumption: Selectivity
audience member's use of media reflects their existing interests
Ex. If you like jazz you might listen to the jazz program
If you're interested in local politics you might subscribe to a local politicians blog
Types of Audience activity associated with media consumption: Imperviousness to influence
refers to the audience members constructing their own meaning from media content
Ex. Some people buy products on the basis of quality and value rather than in response to advertising campaigns
refers to what the media consumer does
refers to how much freedom the audience really has in the face of mass media
Activity vs. activeness
Activity refers more to what the media consumer does
Ex. She choose to go online for news rather than read it in the newspaper
Activeness is closer to what really interests researchers in Uses and Gratification, the audience's freedom and autonomy in the mass communication situation.
Strengths of U&G
Heuristic- theory has been applied to new media such as Internet, cell phone, video games
Criticisms of U&G
Utility- active audience may be questionable
Logical consistency- lack of theoretical coherence
Metatheoretical Stance of U&G
Spiral of Silence is what kind of communication?
Mass communication Theory
What is the goal of Spiral of Silence theory?
To explain what happens when people hold a minority view - form a downward spiral and is focused on public opinions
What is public opinion?
Public Opinion is the attitudes and behaviors expressed in public in order to avoid isolation
How does Noelle Neumann separates public opinion into 2 terms?
1) Public: legal, social, and social-psychological concerns of people
2) Opinion: expression of attitude
What is The Court of Public Opinion?
Noelle Neumann has 3 meanings of Public
1) Legal- open to everyone
2) Social-concerns of the people
3) Social-psychological- people not only think inwardly but also think about their relationships to others
Assumptions of SST (1)
Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation; fear of isolation is pervasive
-Asch's social conformity experiment
Assumptions of SST (2)
The fear of isolation causes individuals to try to assess the climate of opinions at all times
Individuals receive information about public opinion from:
Assumptions of SST (3)
Public behavior is affected by public opinion assessment
Speaking out vs. keeping silent
Humans avoid discussing topics when their viewpoint differs from the majority. Noelle Neumann proposes that public behavior takes the form of either speaking out on a subject or keeping it silent.
-Asch's social conformity experiment 1951 (assumption 1)
Asch discovered that that the subjects kept choosing the wrong answer because individuals frequently felt great pressure to agree with others, even if the others are incorrect. -This is a real fear of isolation
Asch's research concludes that social conformity still exists today
-Smoker's response (assumption 1)
Noelle Neumann, had interviews with smokers- showed them a picture with a person saying smokers are terrible inconsiderate and force others to inhale their health endangering smoke
Respondents were asks to phrase responses to the statement.
Results indicated that in the presence of nonsmokers, many smokers were less willing to support smoker's rights overtly
Quasi-statistical sense (assumption 2)
Personal estimation of the strength of opposing sides on a public issue
personal observations of public opinion can often be distorted and inaccurate. Neumann calls the mistaken observations about how most people feel Pluralistic ignorance.
The Media's Influence:
-People experience the climate of public opinion through the mass media
-Media provides phrases so people can speak about a subject
-The news media gives the public a limited view of reality
refers to the fact that the media are pervasive sources of information. Because media is everywhere, it is relied on when people seek out information. Defined as: the belief that media are everywhere
of the media refers to the process of the media repeating themselves across programs across times. Ex. You will see a story in the newspaper, same story on the radio, same story on evening news. "Reciprocal influence in building up frames of reference". The theory suggests that conformity of voice influences what information gets released to the public to help them build an opinion
pertains to the similar beliefs, attitudes and values held by the media. A tendency for news people to conform their own thoughts and opinions, making it look like those opinions were emanating from the public.
an experiment used to assess the extent to which people will speak out
The question with the train test?
Suppose that you have a 5-hour train ride, and a person sits next to you and starts discussing the problems of [insert topic]. Would you talk or not talk about the topic to the person?
Findings with the train test?
Supporters of the dominant opinion are more willing to speak out
Men from large cities, aged 45-59 are more willing to speak out
Various ways of speaking out exist
People share their opinions more with those who agree
People draw the strength of their convictions from a variety of sources
People engage in "last-minute swings"
The Hard Core-
There is an exception to any rule/theory.
• The hard core: groups that are willing to speak out at any cost.
• Logical Consistency
• Fails to acknowledge ego involvement
• Fear of isolation was not completely supported.
• Communities and reference groups
What is FNT?
Developed by Ting-Toomey (1988)
Intercultural communication theory
Examines cultural differences in conflict management
What is Face?
Face is a projected image of one's self in a relational situation (Ting-Toomey, 1988).
Goals of FNT
Explain how culture influences both face-management and conflict style processes.
Predict what face strategies and conflict styles people will choose based on their culture.
Assumptions of FNT
Face is a universal concept.
Self-identity is important in interpersonal interactions.
Certain acts threaten one's face.
Face mediates the relationship between culture and conflict styles.
Face Threatening Acts (FTAs)
Face can be lost by unacceptable/immoral behaviors or by failure.
FTAs damages one's own face, as well as the group's face, in some cultures.
Boston Bombing suspect's uncle
Characteristics of Face
-Face is social
-Face is projected
-Face refers only to the favorable attributes
Two dimensions of face
FACE CONCERN & FACE NEED
self face concern (your own self image)
-other face concern (concerned on other peoples self)
-positive face need (fellowship face need) - to what extent we need to be connected and approved by others in society
-negative face need (autonomy face need) --- to what extent we have our independence and our freedom
Specific verbal and non verbal behaviors that we engage in to maintain or restore face loss and to uphold and honor face gain
-any type of verbal non verbal communication in order to restore face loss
ex. Tripping on ground and saying it was the heels fault to fulfill our face work
Solidarity face work-
accept others as a member of an in group
-Took son to a restaurant, couldn't sit still in high chair, trying to calm him down, he started climbing steps, a stranger with a mom patted him on the head and said I know those days, put her in group
Tact Face work-
respect others autonomy
-Parents tell you discuss where you go for college, hope you take our advice into consideration but ultimately up to you, trying to respect your autonomy
Key concepts of FNT
Face (including face need, face concern, and face work)
Culture (including individualism and collectivism)
Conflict (including five conflict management styles)
Managing conflict across Cultures
Avoiding- Staying away from disagreements
Obliging- satisfying the needs of others
Compromising- a behavior that employs give and take to achieve a middle road resolution
Dominating- Using influence or authority to make decisions
Integrating- collaborating with others to find solutions
People in INDIVIDUALISM culture:
Decisions based on one's need
Key: privacy, self, independence
People in COLLECTIVISM culture:
Decisions based on what is good to groups
Key: harmony, obligation, interdependence
EXPLANATION OF FNT
Cultural Variability: Individualism &Collectivism
Face Management:Self face concern, Other face concern, Positive face need, Negative face need
Selection of Conflict Styles:Dominating, Obliging, Compromising, Avoiding, integrating
Criticisms of FNT
The cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully explain cultural differences
Positive face & negative face too broad
competence face (Lim & Bowers, 1991)
approbation facework: minimizing blame and maximizing praise of others
Positive criticisms of FNT
Inspired many research on facework and in many cultural contexts.
Social scientific/law appraoch
Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT)
Intercultural communication theory
Goal (purpose) of CAT
-To explain how we accommodate our communication behaviors to others
Accommodation: the ability to adjust, modifies, or regulates one's behavior in response to another, usually done unconsciously
Origin of CAT (roots in speech accommodation theory, etc.)
-Howard Gile (1973)
-The theory started out as Speech Accommodation Theory
-Was named CAT in 1987, includes more than spoken verbal communication
Assumptions of CAT motivation is key
-Speech and behavioral similarities and dissimilarities exist in all conversations
-The way we perceive the speech and behaviors of another will determine how we evaluate a conversation
-Language and behaviors impart information about social status and group belonging
-Accommodation varies in degree of appropriateness and norms guide the process
Norms- expectations of behavior in conversations
Process of attending to and interpreting a message
Process of judging a conversation
is defined as the ability to adjust, modify, or regulate one's behavior in response to another
Over-accommodation- "over doing it" patronizing- "listener" feels less than equal, English vinglish
individuals adapt to each other's communication behaviors
Selective process, based on attraction, convergence tends to be toward stereotypes
accentuate verbal/non verbal differences, a dissociative process
"over doing it" patronizing- "listener" feels less than equal, English vinglish
Mass media, intercultural, compliance gaining, interviews, elderly
Includes many kinds of communication behaviors
Conversations are too complex to be reduced to these processes
Perhaps too rational (in conflict situations)
Metatheoretical stance of the theory
Muted Group Theory (MGT)
A theory about culture and communication
Origins of Muted Group Theory-
Theory originators are Edwin and Shirley Ardener (1975)
-Groups at the top of a social hierarchy determine the communication system
-Dominant groups language is a result of their worldview and experiences
-Muted group translates into the dominant groups language
Makeup of Muted Groups
-Most research focuses on females as a muted group
sex vs. gender
biological category divided into male and female
social category consisting of the learned behaviors that constitute masculinity and femininity for a given culture
group that holds the power in a given culture
Goals of the theory
-To explain how women are silenced in the society
-To advocate changing the status quo by offering coping strategies
Assumptions of MGT
-Gender based differences in perception
Men and women have different experiences, rooted in the division of labor
Men and women are treated differently since the beginning and thus perceive the world differently
Second shift: the phenomenon of working women putting 8 hours on the job and another days work at home
Men are the dominant groups in the society
Mens experiences are given preference over womens
Womens experiences are unnamed or difficult to express
to participate in society, women transform their models to the male system of expression
labeling sexual harassment or date rape
The process of silencing
-Silence is accomplished through a social understanding of who holds power and who does not
men labeling women talking as gossiping/chattering → women themselves refer to their own talk as gabbling/gossiping → women are also told they have no sense of humor leaving room for ridicule → womens concerns are often trivialized by men as not being important enough to listen to yet women are expected to be supportive listeners for men
one example is the wedding ceremony → aspects in this ceremony that silence the bride, bride is delivered to groom, groom says vows first, bride wears a white veil to indicate she is preserved, man and wife, bride changes last name to grooms
place men as central and women as eclipsed, mens talk time always exceeds a womens, a communication behavior that keeps men in control is interruptions.
-men as gatekeepers
men dominate public spaces in that women walking there may receive verbal threats, sexual harassment in the workplace is another method of telling women that they do not belong out of the domestic sphere.
-Name the strategies of silencing
-Reclaim, elevate, and celebrate "trival" discourse
-Create a more representative language
-Challenges us to think about biases in our language system
Lack of Utility
-relies on essentialism
-Exaggerates women's mutedness
Heurism and Test of Time
-not too many studies use MGT as a framework
-Assumptions are not empirically validated
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