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43 terms

Chapter 6: blood

STUDY
PLAY
Blood
-liquid connective tissue
-primary transports medium
- regulatory device: body temp, pH
- defends body against pathogen invasion
formed elements
-red blood cells
-platelets
-plasma
plasma
liquid that suspends the cell fragments
55% of volume of cell
plasma proteins
the most abundant organic molecules in blood
-help keep bllod pH around 7.4
osmotic pressure
a force that prevents excessive loss of plasma from the capillaries into tissues fluid
albumins
the most abundant plasma proteins and contribute most to plasma's osmotic pressure
globulins
called alpha, beta, and gamma
-help transport substances in the blood such as hormones, cholesterol, and iron
fibrinogen
an inactive plasma protein
-important for the formation of blood clots
gamma globulins
the antibodies
-important in fighting disease-causing pathogens
erythrocytes
small, biconcave disks that lack nucleus when mature
occur in great quantity 4-6 million per mm^3
-oxygen transport
hemoglobin
a pigment that makes red blood cells and blood red
-polypeptide chains
-iron containing
erythropoietin
stimulates the stem cells in bone marrow to produce more red blood cells
blood doping
any method if increasing the normal supply of red blood cells for the purpose of delivering oxygen more efficiently, reducing fatigue, and giving athletes a competitive edge.
-EPO injections
anemia
condition when there is a an insufficient number of red blood cells or the cells do not have enough hemoglobin
-tired, run down feeling
iron deficiency anemia
the most common form
inadequate amount of iron in the blood which causes insufficient hemoglobin synthesis
folic acid deficiency anemia
also lead to reduced RBC's particularly during pregnancy
hemolysis
the rupturing of red blood cells
sickle cell disease
a hereditary condition in which the individual has sickle shaped red blood cells that tend to rupture as they pass through the narrow capillaries.
hemolytic disease of the newborn
Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus's blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis., --anemia of a newborn that results from the destruction of the infant's RBCs by antibodies produced by the mother; usually due to an Rh blood type incompatibility
colony- stimulating factor
Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).
granular leukocytes
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
-multi-lobed nucleus
-granules-lyzozyme, myeloperoxidase, and catalase
Attack general invading pathogens.
agranular leukocytes
do not have cytoplasmic granules and have nonlobular nuclei
include the lymphocytes and monocytes
neutrophilis
*THE MOST NUMEROUS OF WBCs
*THEY ARE CONSIDERED THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINIST BACTERIA
*THE INCREASE THE NUMBERS ENGULF AND DEVOUR INVADERS AND ASSIST IN REPAIRING DAMAGED TISSUE
*SOMETIMES THEY DIE DURING THIS PROCESS AND COLLECT WITH BACTERIA TO FORM PUS
*FUNCTION IS PHAGOCYTOSIS
*ADULT PERCENTAGE IS 54% TO 62%
-aka polymorphonuclear leukocytes
eosinphils
-have a bilobed nucleus
-large granules
basophilis
u shaped or lobed nucleus
-dark blue color
-release a histamine associates with allergic reactions
lymphocytes
accounts fro 25-35% of all white blood cells. 2nd most abundant
- responsible for specific immunity to particular pathogens and toxins
B-produce antibodies
T-directly destroy pathogens
monocytes
the largest of the white blood cells
- active pagocytes, destroying pathogens m old cells and cellular debris
severe combined immunodeficiency disease
when the stem cells of whit blood cells lack and enzyme called adenosine
leukemia
uncontrolled cell growth
-infection of lymphocytes
thrombocytes
the result of fragmentation of large cells called megakaryocytes
-200 billion are created a day
-150,000-300,000 per mm3 of blood
prothrombin activator
a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; it converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot
thrombocytopenia
a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process
-a disorder in which the number of platelets is too low due to not enough being made in the bone marrow or the increased breakdown outside the marrow
thrombus
a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
thromboembolism
Blockage of a blood vessel due to a piece of a clot breaking off from another location and preventing blood flow.
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of one of the protein substances necessary for blood clotting
blood transfusion
the introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
agglutination
the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins
B
45%
A
39%
O
4%
AB
12%
Antigen
a foreign substance, often a polysaccharide or a protein, that stimulates an immune response
-blood type is named base on the antigens
Antibody
proteins made in response to an antigen in the body and bind to that antigen
-looks Y like