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Soc 110 Midterm 2 - Coleman
Terms in this set (76)
A change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group pressure
Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or exceptions of a group or society
The violation of society's formally enacted criminal law
Durkheim term for the loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of the opposite sec
The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
The properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
White Collar Crimes
Nonviolent crime committed by individuals or corporations to obtain a personal or business advantage
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands. usually from someone is a position of power.
Our persona identity and the ongoing process of self-development through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us
A groups formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
Lifelong experience of learning the rules followed by society from those around
Meads term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
A measure of how much you value, and feel confident about yourself
An emotional disorder in which a person defensively shuts off the willingness or ability to make emotional attachments to anyone
A person or group of persons joined together by blood, marriage, adoption or other bonds who are committed to each other and provide emotional support
A form of marriage which one woman and one man are married only to each other
Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
Form of social organization in which the father rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the father
A form of social organization in which the mother rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the mother
Looking Glass Self
Term coined by Charles Horton Cooley that refers to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
Requirements for socialization
1. Social interaction: must interact in order to do this
2. Language: language shapes culture or vice versa. different cultures have different way of looking at the world
3. Love and affection: need proper love
Effects of restricted Socialization
The Nature, Maintenance, Change and Organization of the self
Nature: The idea that our self images are formed from interactions with others. this self image must be developed in order to continue to society
Maintenance: Social support -- need and gain social support as we go through our lives. Self evaluation and esteem necessary to evaluate who we are and know our own value
Change: must adjust our sense of self when moving to a new part of life. When our sene of self breaks and we have changed we go through an identity crisis. If someone cannot form a sense of self it is identity diffusion.
The Origins of the Self
Mead believed that -- are the response of an individual "I" to the attitudes of others, while "me" is the organization set of attitudes of others, which an individual assumes
Unwanted sexual attention, often from someone in power, that makes the victim feel uncomfortable or threatened
Sexual contact that is committed without the other party's consent or with a party who is not capable of giving consent (such as a child or mentally handicapped individual).
A view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary and unlearned responses
The evolution of gender roles
Gender roles vary b/w foraging (relatively equal), farming (patriarchal domination due to a lot of conflict) and industrial societies (not equal but women have moved up due to less conflict)
Gender inequality around the world
Inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income and status.
Types of families
Nuclear and extended
Consisting of 2 parents and their unmarried children. Also called conjugal family b/c its members are related by virtue of the marriage b/w the parents. Common in western industrial families.
When nuclear family lives in close proximity to other relatives, interacting with them frequently and acting together as a unit for some purpose; consisting of 2 parents and their unmarried children and other relatives
Functions of the family
Most basic grouping in society. Controls reproductions, support and status description. Can be basis of government/ruling.
Agents of socialization
The persons, groups or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society
The view advanced by Erving Goffman of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors or metaphorical stages, with roles scripts costumes and sets.
The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
Classical/Rational choice theory
Idea that criminals share the same goals and ambitions as ordinary people but make the choice to obtain them illegitimate means.
Deviance v. Crime
Deviance is considered by some power to be a violation of some public rule, meaning it could involve behavior such as homophobia or using porn and mental disorders where as crime is a violation of law such as rape, homicide or robbery.
Communication b/w men and women
Men talk more often than women, an tend to interrupt women more. Men are more likely to boast about accomplishments and have ideas more generally accepted b/c of verbal confidence. Women are more soft spoken and polite, and tend to lose out in arguments even though they may be more competent.
Evolution of the family
Idea imposed by Hirschi that views crime as outcome of an imbalance b/w impulses toward criminal activity and controls that deter it. Believes that criminals are rational beings who will maximize their own reward unless they are rendered unable to do so through either social or physical controls
Conflict (critical) theory of crime
1. The lower the social class, the more the individual is forced into criminality
2. Inequalities in society tends to produce criminal activity
3. Reducing social inequalities will reduce crime
Merton's idea that social disorganization causes crime to be more prevalent among the poor
Social diversity of families
Differential association theory
The idea that criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage us crime; proposed by Edwin H. Sutherland
Biological theories of crime
Low serotonin levels, low IQ's and sex (men) are all causes of crime and deviance
The people around teach us our gender role. This continues our entire lives.
Causes in gender inequality in income
Nature vs. Nurture in creating gender difference
Is our gender and gender role defined by how we grow up or is it predetermined when we are born. Men biological are born to be bigger and stronger and have behavioral predispositions of dominance based of size and strength and women have children meaning they are assigned caring tasks in culture.
Global perspective on conformity and deviance
Agricultural, pastoral, and foraging societies have very low crime rates but are uncommon now. Industrial and impoverished societies have a lot of crime and these are very common now
Mechanisms of Social control
Are the processes used by all societies and social groups to influence or mold members behavior to conform to group values and norms.
Gender and the media
The culture of rape
Reveals itself through three prevailing attitudes toward women
1. Have historically been treated as mens property
2. Women are treated as if they are objects of masculinity contests among men
3. Popular myth that deep down women want to be raped
Difference between Chimpanzees and Bonobos
Chimps are larger and heavier, Bonobos are geographically more restricted, face colors are changed in chimps with age, whereas bonobos do not change face color with age, chimps are sexually arrogant, and the stronger males protect the females in heat, while bonobos females are highly sexually oriented without homosexual behaviors sometimes. The breeding can take place b/w troops. Chimps hunt is groups, chimps never allow their territories to be overlapped, bonobos do.
One of the most influencial america psychologists; contributed his studies of symbolic interactions. Came up with the idea of supportive and oppositional interactions
Wasn't a sociologist, was a philosopher. only american in group. social psychologist dealt with individuals in small groups and how they dealt with society. theory of interactionism.
Researcher, found that children who receive little attention in institutions suffered very noticeable effects.
Anna and Isabelle
Amala and Kamala
Performed experiment with students who inflicted severe pain on a student when told to do so by him as an authoritative figure; testes group conformity and concluded that most people follow orders from an authority when told by their leaders b/c of the fear of questioning authority
Brought together groups 8-9 and asked which lines on one card were the same length as lines on another, proved that the pressure to conform is so powerful that individual embers tend to knuckle under, going along with the majority even if they disagree with it
Came up with the idea of primary and secondary groups. Primary groups consist of families, fraternities, sororities etc. because they interact informally and relate to each other as whole persons. Secondary groups are groups that tdont know each other personally, little face to face interaction and if they do they do so formally
French like marx but was jewish, functional analysis: began functionalism, felt that major social institutions had to form a function for society but eouldnt exist if they didn't. shared values and morality hold people together
Came up with the strain theory, was a functionalist. Theory blames deviance on societies failure to provide all people w/ legitimate means to achieve success
Came up with the control theory, was a functionalist said that family, school and other social institutions contribute to social order by controlling deviant tendencies in all of us
Came up with the differential association theory, deviance is learned through interactions with other people. Found that this causes an excess of definition favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law.
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