Upgrade to remove ads
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1 (Part I)
Reading & English Language Arts
Terms in this set (108)
Tools of communication children use to form their understanding of the word
reading, writing, listening, speaking
demonstrate an understanding of
1) language development
2) oral language skills
3) listening comprehension skills
4) phonological/phonemic awareness.
Time to talk about things that interest and excite children.
Exploring rhythms, sounds, and tones
Rhymes and song
Experiences rich in rhythm and rhyme
Discover new words and meanings (told or read aloud)
Times when conventions of shared conversations are learned and practiced
The critical stage of language development between birth and the early elementary school years helps prepare children with the skills important for conventional literacy.
The key is to make reading and writing _____ to the everyday life of the classroom and to make literacy activities _____ to each child.
_____ and _____ to what the children have to say and they will learn to do the same.
Language Experience Approach
Language Delay is caused by
1) inadequate language stimulation
2) delayed general development
3) family/guardians who often talk for the child
4) medical/physical problems
5) family history of language delay
6) learning disabilities
7) autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Listening is an active communication process that involves _____, _____, and _____ to verbal input.
Three steps in the Listening Process
Three phases of the listening process students can be given opportunities to develop and practice listening skills.
distinguishing beginning consonant sounds, for example
to evaluate a message
to understand a message
(linguistics) small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
understanding that words are composed of phonemes.
written symbols used to represent phonemes
method of writing a language
A basic unit of speech sounds that can be divided into parts
the consonant sound that precedes the vowel of the syllable
the vowel and any consonant sound that follows the onset.
The ability to identify and manipulate phonemes
a child's ability to recognize the separate sound units of words
Combining phonemes to create words
Standard American English contains about _____ basic phonemes, although differences in regional pronunciation and dialect can generate more.
One would expect that since there are 26 letters in the alphabet that there would be only _____ phonemes.
recognizing the individual sounds in words.
For example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word top (/t/)."
recognizing the common sound in different words.
Example: "Tell me the sound that is the same in pig, pot, and pie (/p/)."
turning one word into another by substituting one phoneme for another. Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (top-mop), middle sounds (top-tap) or ending sounds (top-tot).
identifying sounds that have been deleted from a word.
Example: the teacher shows the word "top" and asks the children to silence the 'p' to create "to"
Knowledge emergent readers have about how printed language works and how print can be used to represent language.
Concepts of print
Concepts of print include literacy conventions such as
1) Holding a book the right way
2) Turning the pages from right to left
3) Knowing where to begin reading on a page
4) Reading left to right, top to bottom
5) Understanding that books have a front/back
Teachers can promote emergent literacy skills when they:
1) Model reading aloud
2) Point to words as they read
3) Explain punctuation
4) Encourage students to participate in the reading activity (pointing to the words, or turning the pages).
The idea that written letters and letter patterns can be used to represent speech sounds.
the alphabetic principle
Learning letter names
Children learn letter names by singing songs and by reciting rhymes.
How beginners learn letter shapes
Playing with blocks, plastic letters, alphabet books, and computer games.
the ability to decode printed text easily, accurately, expressively, and at an appropriate rate
teaching beginners to associate letters with their sound values
forming or dividing words into syllables
the ability to recognize words quickly, effortlessly, and accurately
1) effective instruction in phonics
2) word analysis skills develop reading fluency
the study of poetic meter and the art of versification
Systematic sight word instruction
Promoting automatic recognition of high frequency words in texts.
Corresponding letters to sounds
an affix that is added at the end of the word
an affix that added in front of the word
attach or become attached to a stem word
Represents the words the reader recognizes almost instantly and with little conscious effort, or automatically.
sight word vocabulary
words that appear most frequently in print
It has been estimated that _____ English words make up _____ percent of all words in typical English-language books or newspapers, perhaps more in books for young children.
A particular mode in which something is expressed
(e.g., speaking, listening, writing, reading)
the study of the forms of words
a unit of a language that cannot be further divided
(e.g., in, come, -ing, forming incoming).
the patterns of stress and intonation in language
Basic syllable patterns (7)
1) closed (bad)
2) open (hi)
3) vowel-consonant-silent e (bike)
4) vowel teams (loan)
5) r-controlled (car)
6) consonant - le (table)
7) others (sion, tion, ture, etc)
Spelling and Reading Patterns (5)
1) Emergent Speller (Reader)
2) Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling (Beginning Reader)
3) Within Word Pattern Spelling (Transitional Reader)
4) Syllables and Affixes Spelling (Intermediate Reader)
5) Derivational Relations Spelling (Advanced Reader)
relating to the patterns of rhythms and sound used in poetry
Reading that's accurate, at a natural pace, and mimics speech in its phrasing and expressiveness.
_____ involves not only fast and accurate word identification (reflecting automaticity) but also entails reading in phrase-length chunks and reading with expression, or "prosodic reading."
Reading with expression
Three key indicators of fluency to assess students' fluency development
Accuracy, Rate, Prosody
All students read aloud together like a choir.
Reading text aloud and have students chorally mimic the style.
Students read a passage several times as their teacher offers suggestions of areas for improvement
(e.g., accuracy, rate, rhythm, intonation, phrasing).
One student reads the text silently and then reads the passage aloud.
The listener offers constructive feedback.
The reader reads the text a second time.
An intervention for addressing students' demonstrated needs in certain areas.
the process of interpreting and making meanings from what is read
Instructional strategies/skills that are effective in teaching reading comprehension and vocabulary.
2) main ideas
3) supporting details
4) sequence of events
5) cause-and-effect relationships.
Inferring ideas/relationships that aren't explicitly stated.
Is text fact or opinion? Drawing conclusions about its meaning. Judge its the quality, validity, and effectiveness of the message.
Skilled readers are both _____ (they read with a goal in mind) and _____ (they work hard to understand what has been read).
Six reading comprehension strategies that benefit students in learning reading comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2002).
3) Text Structure
4) Visual Representation in Texts
5) Questions and Questioning
Recognizing when to use particular strategies to understand what they are reading. ("Thinking about thinking")
Basic words which are learned at home or in a community; used to support beginning readers & ELLs
Large group of high frequency words which appear in different contexts; allows students to illustrate connections to other words
Words with lower frequency but are important in their content areas vocabulary learning.
Different texts and graphic resources must offer experiences with a wide assortment of text in reading instruction to develop students into capable readers.
_____ works most often include a plot, setting, characters, theme, conflict, and resolution.
_____ _____ most often include plot, setting, characters, dialogue, and also use a specific form (or script) that organizes the work into acts and scenes.
Dramatic works (or plays)
The way authors create, develop, and present characters.
Events in a story that move the plot forward. Involves conflicts and complications and usually builds toward the climax.
A direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as.
Stories originally shared orally through storytelling. Stories passed down by previous generations, sharing cultural traditions and values.
Fables are most popularly associated with _____
Aesop (6th century BC).
Enlightens readers with facts.
Examples: some picture/chapter books, content area textbooks, newspapers, journal articles, and photographic essays.
Five organizational patterns common to informational texts:
Question-Answer-Relationships (Raphael, 2006) guide students to question informational text.
Students seek answers that satisfy literal, inferential, or evaluative comprehension questions.
Raphael's four types of questions:
1) Right There Questions
2) Think & Search Questions
3) Author & Me Questions
4) On My Own Questions
In contrast to plain folks, this propaganda technique suggests that the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite or exclusive group.
Processes, conventions, and key elements of written and oral communication.
characterized by recurrence or repetition
Technique includes concept webs/maps. Linking groups as connections become apparent.
This is a method that many writers use to warm up to generate ideas. The students write down whatever comes into your head during a specified time period (5-10 minutes) without concerning themselves with sentence structure, spelling, grammar, or punctuation. They simply write rapidly about anything that comes to their minds before the time elapses.
3 Levels of Communication
Communicating with oneself.
Examples: thought processing, personal decision making, self-talk, listening, and determining self-concept.
Takes place between two or more persons who establish a communicative relationship. Forms include face-to-face or mediated conversations, interviews, and small-group discussions.
Formal classroom talk intended to inform or persuade.
_____ _____ is the process of sending messages intended to share concepts, skills, or knowledge. Also called instructional (or _____) communication, academic communication is distinguished from interpersonal communication in that academic communication is focused on instructional content while interpersonal communication is generally more informal and spontaneous.
Academic communication, efferent
The level of formality used when speaking or writing formal language, familiar language, or slang.
social variation (or register)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1 STUDY THIS ONE…
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1
NES Subtest 1
NES Elementary Education Subtest 2
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ORELA Elementary Education Subtest 1 ELA
English Language Arts and Reading 4-8 (117)
Praxis II-5002 (READING-FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Part 2…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Theology Q/A for Final
NES - Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1 (Part II)
NES Social Studies Secondary Endorsement Test
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Chapter 19 APUSH Reading Guide
Grade 8 - Social Studies - Chapter 21