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REDUCED STATE. A coenzyme that easily cycles between oxidized and reduced states thus acting as an electron carrier

NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

OXIDIZED STATE. A coenzyme that cycles between oxidized and reduced states, it acts as an electron carrier.


The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.


the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The principle of conservation of energy: energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The principle stating that every energy transfer or transformations increases the entropy of the univers. Usable forms of energy are at least partially converted to heat.


A measure of disorder or randomness.

exergonic reaction

A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.

endergonic reaction

A nonspontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings

ATP (adenosine Triphosphate)

An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy wen its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. this energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.


Organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism


A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most of proteins.

Activation Energy (free energy of activation)

The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.

active site

the specific region of an enzyme that binds the substrate and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs.


A chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

irreversible inhibition

The action of an inhibitor such that once bound to a protein cannot dissociate

enzymatic pathways

A series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes and are connected by their intermediates.


Describes a chemical reaction that releases energy (in the form of heat)


The break down of complex molecules to form simpler ones, other with the release of energy.


The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy.


Adenosine monophosphate, ATP minus 2 phosphate groups


The product of ATP dephophorylation via ATPase to release energy; can be converted to ATP by phophoylation.


The reactant on which an enzyme works.

Induced Fit Hypothesis

Caused by entry of the substrate, the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snuggly to the substrate. "handshake"


Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. they can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely and reversely along with the substrate during catalysis.


An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. EX - vitamins

competitive inhibitor

A substrate that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.

non-competitive inhibitor

A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer effectively catalyzes the conversion of substrate to product.

allosteric interactions/regulation

The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.

feedback inhibition

A method of metabolic control where the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.


A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product like ethyl alchol or lactic acid


an enzyme that converts ATP to ADP


the addition of a phosphate group to a protein or organic molecule


An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specified molecule.


an enzyme that phosphoylates a six carbon sugar, a hexose, to a hexose phosphate

glucose 6 phosphate

glucose sugar phophorylated on carbon 6

fructose 6 phosphate

fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6

citric acid

An important intermediate in the krebs cycle which breaks down glucose into water and carbon dioxide when oxygen is present

oxaloacetic acid

Formed by the oxidaiton of malic acid in the krebs cycle and by transimation from aspartic acid. An important intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates.


A glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the phophoylation of fructose phosphate.

pyruvic acid

A colorless, water-soluble organic liquid produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates and sugars during glycolysis.


A redox cofactor involved in several important reactions in metabolism, it converts between by accepting or donating electrons.

ATP synthetase

The enzyme that provides energy for the cel to use through the synthesis of ATP

mitochondrial matrix

The part of the mitochondria enclosed by the inner most membrane.

Inner membrane space

the narrow part of the mitochondria between the two membranes

anaerobic respiration

A catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecule other than oxygen accept electrons at the "Down hill" end of the electron transport chain


A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product like ethyl alcohol or lactic acid


Infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion, which houses electron transport chains and molecules of the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reaction that release energy used to make ATP

aerobic respiration

A catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen, as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP, MOst effiecent

alcoholic fermentation

Glycolsis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide.

lactic acid fermentation

Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate regenerating NAD+ with no release of carbon dioxide produces latice

ATP synthase

A complex of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmois with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP.


An iron containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells.

oxidative phosphorylation

The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reaction of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.

acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A)

The entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.

krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)

A chemical cycle involving 8 steps that completes the metabolic break down of glucose molecule begin in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; to get with pyruvate oxidation, the second major stage of cellular respiration


An energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by this


A series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate. Starting point of fermentation or cellular respiration.

redox reaction

A chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another.


The complete or partial addiction of electrons to a substrate involved in redox reactions.


The complete or partial loss of electrons from substrate involved in a redox reactions.

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