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naive scientist view
view that people think rationally (like scientists); gather and synthesize data in an unbiased fashion
cognitive miser view
view that we try to conserve our cognitive energy-"lazy thinkers"; simplifying complex problems
motivated tactician view
view that motivation is important in guiding cognition and behavior; flexibility in our thinking
Fundamental Attribution Error
overestimate influence of personality dispositions and underestimate influence of the situation on a person's behavior
tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational factors while observers attribute the same actions to personality factors
tendency to make dispositional attributions for our success and to make situational attributions for our failures
judging an event as common if it comes readily to mind (ex: judging airplane crashes as common after watching news report on airplane crashes)
a set of expectations about a social position that defines how those in that position ought to behave
stanford prison experiment
experiment that revealed the power of social roles and the social situation on the self; people can become the person they play
what you are+what you'd ideally like to be; evokes sadness, dissatisfaction, low self esteem
cognitive dissonance theory
a state of tension occurs when a person holds cognitions and/or behaviors that are inconsistent
when another person outperforms you on something NOT important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the GAIN to your self-evaluation
when another person outperforms you on something that IS important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the THREAT to your self-evaluation
U.S.=emphasis in self-enhancement and self-esteem; Eastern=greater emphasis on self modesty
cultural differences in self-enhancement
U.S.=independent view of self; Eastern=interdependent view of self
cultural differences in self-concept
experience of being in love and longing for your feelings to be reciprocated; feeling of "walking on air", rehearse and remember everything he/she said to you, daydream about the person
type of love: milder, but more stable feelings, warmth, mutual trust, dependability, deepens over time
your beliefs about another person lead that person to behave in ways that confirm your beliefs; ex: parent calling child lazy may lead that child to behave in a lazy way.
other people's stereotypes of your group may lead you to behave in ways that are consistent/confirm those stereotypes
causes of prejudice
economic or political competition, displaced aggression, maintenance of self-esteem, prejudice personality, conformity to social norms, authoritarian personality
Allport's contact hypothesis
reducing prejudice: equal status contact and mutual interdependence; equal level playing field and working together to accomplish a same goal
Sherif's Robbers Cave study
competition between 2 groups of boys led to hostility and conflict; shared goals/mutual interdependence reduced conflict
students work together and cooperate in order to learn the material; reduces the need to compete
attitudes toward women that seem positive but is actually sexist; ex: "women should be cherished and protected by men" or "many women have a quality of purity that few men posses"
Bandura's bobo doll experiment
kids who saw an aggressive adult later behaved more aggressively toward the bobo doll; power of observational learning
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