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naive scientist view

view that people think rationally (like scientists); gather and synthesize data in an unbiased fashion

cognitive miser view

view that we try to conserve our cognitive energy-"lazy thinkers"; simplifying complex problems

motivated tactician view

view that motivation is important in guiding cognition and behavior; flexibility in our thinking

dispositional attribution

attribute causality to something within a person (ex: personality)

situational attribution

attribute causality to something outside of a person (ex: situation)

Fundamental Attribution Error

overestimate influence of personality dispositions and underestimate influence of the situation on a person's behavior

U.S=more dispositional attributions; Asia=more situational attributions

cultural differences in FAE

actor-observer bias

tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational factors while observers attribute the same actions to personality factors

self-serving bias

tendency to make dispositional attributions for our success and to make situational attributions for our failures

representativeness heuristic

using stereotypes to judge the likelihood of things

availability heuristic

judging an event as common if it comes readily to mind (ex: judging airplane crashes as common after watching news report on airplane crashes)

social self

reflected appraisals, social roles, self-perception, social comparison, social identity

social role

a set of expectations about a social position that defines how those in that position ought to behave

stanford prison experiment

experiment that revealed the power of social roles and the social situation on the self; people can become the person they play

actual-ideal self-discrepancy

what you are+what you'd ideally like to be; evokes sadness, dissatisfaction, low self esteem

actual-ought self-discrepancy

what you are+what you ought to be; evokes anxiety and fear

implicit attitude test

test that measures unconscious attitudes

explicit attitude

conscious attitude

implicit attitude

unconscious, automatic attitude

explicit self-esteem

conscious attitudes about the self

implicit self-esteem

unconscious attitudes about the self

cognitive dissonance theory

a state of tension occurs when a person holds cognitions and/or behaviors that are inconsistent

Leon Festinger

person who came up with the cognitive dissonance theory

self-evaluation maintenance model

model made up of assimilation effect and comparison effect

assimilation effect

when another person outperforms you on something NOT important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the GAIN to your self-evaluation

comparison effect

when another person outperforms you on something that IS important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the THREAT to your self-evaluation

U.S.=emphasis in self-enhancement and self-esteem; Eastern=greater emphasis on self modesty

cultural differences in self-enhancement

independent self

individualism; self as separate from others

interdependent self

collectivism; self as connected to others

U.S.=independent view of self; Eastern=interdependent view of self

cultural differences in self-concept

interpersonal attraction

factors: similarity, proximity, mere exposure effect, disclosure, favors


experience of being in love and longing for your feelings to be reciprocated; feeling of "walking on air", rehearse and remember everything he/she said to you, daydream about the person

passionate love

type of love: strong emotions, sexual desire, intense preoccupation with beloved

companionate love

type of love: milder, but more stable feelings, warmth, mutual trust, dependability, deepens over time

consumate love

type of love: passion, intimacy, commitment; rarely achieved

labeling effects

your beliefs about another person lead that person to behave in ways that confirm your beliefs; ex: parent calling child lazy may lead that child to behave in a lazy way.

stereotype threat

other people's stereotypes of your group may lead you to behave in ways that are consistent/confirm those stereotypes

explicit racism

overt prejudice; what people disclose on questionnaires and interviews

implicit racism

unconscious, subtle prejudice; less open to conscious awareness and control

causes of prejudice

economic or political competition, displaced aggression, maintenance of self-esteem, prejudice personality, conformity to social norms, authoritarian personality

social identity theory

person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships

Allport's contact hypothesis

reducing prejudice: equal status contact and mutual interdependence; equal level playing field and working together to accomplish a same goal

Sherif's Robbers Cave study

competition between 2 groups of boys led to hostility and conflict; shared goals/mutual interdependence reduced conflict

Jigsaw Classroom

students work together and cooperate in order to learn the material; reduces the need to compete

ambivalent sexism

composed of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism

hostile sexism

hostile attitudes toward women; ex: "women are inferior to men"

benevolent sexism

attitudes toward women that seem positive but is actually sexist; ex: "women should be cherished and protected by men" or "many women have a quality of purity that few men posses"

bystander effect

people are less likely to help the more people there are present

Bandura's bobo doll experiment

kids who saw an aggressive adult later behaved more aggressively toward the bobo doll; power of observational learning

Southern culture of honor and aggression

more inclined to endorse the role of aggression for protection of their property and in response to insults (honor)

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