50 terms

Social Psych FINAL

naive scientist view
view that people think rationally (like scientists); gather and synthesize data in an unbiased fashion
cognitive miser view
view that we try to conserve our cognitive energy-"lazy thinkers"; simplifying complex problems
motivated tactician view
view that motivation is important in guiding cognition and behavior; flexibility in our thinking
dispositional attribution
attribute causality to something within a person (ex: personality)
situational attribution
attribute causality to something outside of a person (ex: situation)
Fundamental Attribution Error
overestimate influence of personality dispositions and underestimate influence of the situation on a person's behavior
U.S=more dispositional attributions; Asia=more situational attributions
cultural differences in FAE
actor-observer bias
tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational factors while observers attribute the same actions to personality factors
self-serving bias
tendency to make dispositional attributions for our success and to make situational attributions for our failures
representativeness heuristic
using stereotypes to judge the likelihood of things
availability heuristic
judging an event as common if it comes readily to mind (ex: judging airplane crashes as common after watching news report on airplane crashes)
social self
reflected appraisals, social roles, self-perception, social comparison, social identity
social role
a set of expectations about a social position that defines how those in that position ought to behave
stanford prison experiment
experiment that revealed the power of social roles and the social situation on the self; people can become the person they play
actual-ideal self-discrepancy
what you are+what you'd ideally like to be; evokes sadness, dissatisfaction, low self esteem
actual-ought self-discrepancy
what you are+what you ought to be; evokes anxiety and fear
implicit attitude test
test that measures unconscious attitudes
explicit attitude
conscious attitude
implicit attitude
unconscious, automatic attitude
explicit self-esteem
conscious attitudes about the self
implicit self-esteem
unconscious attitudes about the self
cognitive dissonance theory
a state of tension occurs when a person holds cognitions and/or behaviors that are inconsistent
Leon Festinger
person who came up with the cognitive dissonance theory
self-evaluation maintenance model
model made up of assimilation effect and comparison effect
assimilation effect
when another person outperforms you on something NOT important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the GAIN to your self-evaluation
comparison effect
when another person outperforms you on something that IS important to your self-definition; the CLOSER your relationship, the greater the THREAT to your self-evaluation
U.S.=emphasis in self-enhancement and self-esteem; Eastern=greater emphasis on self modesty
cultural differences in self-enhancement
independent self
individualism; self as separate from others
interdependent self
collectivism; self as connected to others
U.S.=independent view of self; Eastern=interdependent view of self
cultural differences in self-concept
interpersonal attraction
factors: similarity, proximity, mere exposure effect, disclosure, favors
experience of being in love and longing for your feelings to be reciprocated; feeling of "walking on air", rehearse and remember everything he/she said to you, daydream about the person
passionate love
type of love: strong emotions, sexual desire, intense preoccupation with beloved
companionate love
type of love: milder, but more stable feelings, warmth, mutual trust, dependability, deepens over time
consumate love
type of love: passion, intimacy, commitment; rarely achieved
labeling effects
your beliefs about another person lead that person to behave in ways that confirm your beliefs; ex: parent calling child lazy may lead that child to behave in a lazy way.
stereotype threat
other people's stereotypes of your group may lead you to behave in ways that are consistent/confirm those stereotypes
explicit racism
overt prejudice; what people disclose on questionnaires and interviews
implicit racism
unconscious, subtle prejudice; less open to conscious awareness and control
causes of prejudice
economic or political competition, displaced aggression, maintenance of self-esteem, prejudice personality, conformity to social norms, authoritarian personality
social identity theory
person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships
Allport's contact hypothesis
reducing prejudice: equal status contact and mutual interdependence; equal level playing field and working together to accomplish a same goal
Sherif's Robbers Cave study
competition between 2 groups of boys led to hostility and conflict; shared goals/mutual interdependence reduced conflict
Jigsaw Classroom
students work together and cooperate in order to learn the material; reduces the need to compete
ambivalent sexism
composed of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism
hostile sexism
hostile attitudes toward women; ex: "women are inferior to men"
benevolent sexism
attitudes toward women that seem positive but is actually sexist; ex: "women should be cherished and protected by men" or "many women have a quality of purity that few men posses"
bystander effect
people are less likely to help the more people there are present
Bandura's bobo doll experiment
kids who saw an aggressive adult later behaved more aggressively toward the bobo doll; power of observational learning
Southern culture of honor and aggression
more inclined to endorse the role of aggression for protection of their property and in response to insults (honor)