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64 terms

Psych Sensation and Perception Test

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Sensory transduction
process by which our sensory system convert stimulus energy into neural messages
It isn't color that strikes our eyes, it is...
pulses of electromagnetic energy that our visual system experiences as color
Sensation
the awareness of the world around us via sense receptors
bottom-up processing (sense receptors to brain)
Perception
Organization and interpretation of sensory info
Top-down processing (brain down)
Absolute Threshold
The minimum amount of stimulation required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
Subliminal stimulation
below absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Just Noticeable Difference
minimum amount of change required to detect a difference 50% of time
(How much do you have to turn up the radio before you can hear it?)
Webber's Law
The JND increases with the magnitude of the stimulus
(If the music is loud, you have to turn it up a lot more to notice the difference rather than if it is very quiet)
Sensory Adaptation
the filtering out of non-changing stimuli, i.e. a buzzing in the room, the water temperature in a pool
Selective Attention
the focusing of conscious awareness onto one stimulus in spite of other stimulus
Cocktail Party Effect
A type of selective attention
Attending to one voice among many
Cornea
Protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
Pupil
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Iris
Ring of muscle forms colored portion of the eye around pupil and controls size of pupil opening
Lens
Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Accommodation
The eye's adjustment of the sharpness of an image
Acuity
the sharpness of vision. It can be affected by small distortions in the shape of the eye.
Nearsightedness
Eye's lens is bent forward which makes closer objects appear more clearly, A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
Farsightedness
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina
Retina
light sensitive inner surface of the eye. Contains cones & rods and neurons to process visual information.
Rods
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and grey
Cones
Retinal receptor cells in inner part of retina that work better in well lit conditions to pick up color conditions
Fovea
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
Bipolar Cells
Transmit signals from rods and cones to ganglion cells
Ganglion Cells
Have long axons that extend into the brain. These axons form the optic nerve
Optic Nerve
Nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Blind Spot
The point at which the optic nerve leave the eye creating a _______ because no receptor cells are located there
Feature Detector Neurons
Receive visual information and respond to specific features of a scene like shape, angle, or motion
Parallel Processing
Processing several aspects of a problem simultaneously (brain uses this)
The brain works on color, depth, movement, and form simultaneously
Serial Processing
Step by step processing (Computers use this)
Young-Helmholtz trichomatic theory
The retina has three types of color receptors each sensitive to one of three colors: red, green, blue.
If you stimulate more than one at a time, you'll see other colors
Subtractive Color Mixing
When we mix red, blue, and green paint we get brown colored paint.
Formation of colors by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there.
Additive Color Mixing
when all colors of light are mixed the result is white which is what results from the combination of all visible wavelengths
Opponent-Process Theory
(Hering) the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

The after image shows the inverse of the color
Visual Capture
The tendency for vision to dominate other senses.
Watching a roller coaster on a screen, we brace ourselves even though our other senses tell us we're not moving
Gestalt
An organized whole
Gestalt Psychologists
emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Binocular Depth Cue
Depends on two eyes
Monocular Depth Cue
Depends on one eye
Retinal Disparity
A binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the 2 eyes, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
Convergence
A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
Relative Size
(Monocular cue) if we assume that 2 objects are the similar size, we perceive the one that casts smaller retinal images as farther away
Interposition
(Monocular cue) If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
Relative Clarity
(Monocular cue) because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear ones
Texture Gradient
(Monocular cue) a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct one signals increasing distance
Relative Height
(Monocular cue) we perceive objects higher in our FOV as farther away
Relative Motion
(Monocular cue) as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move
-Objects beyond the fixation point appear to move with you. The farther away it is, the slower it's apparent speed
Linear Perspective
(Monocular cue) parallel lines appear to converge with distance
Stroboscopic Movement
The brain interprets a rapid series of slightly carrying images as moving
Light and Shadow
(Monocular cue) nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes so if you have two objects, the dimmer one seems farther away.
Phi Phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession
Lightness/brightness constancy
We perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies
Perceived lightness depends on relative luminance - the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings
Proximity
we group nearby figures together
Similarity
figures similar to each other we group together
Continuity
we perceive smooth, continuous patters rather than discontinuous ones
Connectedness
when they are uniform and linked, we perceive spots, lines, or areas as a single unit
Closure
we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
Visual Cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
Depth Perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
Vestibular Sense
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers body movement and position
Kinesthesis
The position and movement of individual body parts
Olfaction
Occurs when molecules of what you are smelling reach receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity
Perceptual Adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Perceptual Set
Predisposition to see one thing rather than another