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16 terms

MCAT Chem - Thermdym

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conduction
thermal energy transfer via molecular collisions
convection
thermal energy transfer via fluid movement
radiation
thermal energy transfer via electromagnetic waves
standard state
For a pure substance, the most stable form of the substance at 1 atm and a specified temperature, usually 25°C: for a gas, 1 atm; for a solution, concentration of 1 molar.
enthalpy
a system's capacity to do PV work
reference form
the stablest form of the element under standard thermodynamic conditions
standard enthalpy of formation
the enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25 C from its elements, with all substances in their standard states at that temperature
heat of reaction
Change of heat = Potential Energy of product minus Potential energy of reaction
Hess' Law
total enthalpy in a system is equal to the sum of the steps of the reaction
exothermic reaction
a reaction with a negative heat of reaction, releases heat
endothermic reaction
a reaction with a positive heat of reaction, absorbs heat
KEavg
3/2kT
enthalpy
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure
entropy
nature's tendency to make the most probable situation that can occur in a system
equilibrium
the point at which the universe has maximum entropy
Gibbs Free Energy
maximum non-PV Work available for a reaction, deltaG = deltaH - T*deltaS