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thermal energy transfer via molecular collisions


thermal energy transfer via fluid movement


thermal energy transfer via electromagnetic waves

standard state

For a pure substance, the most stable form of the substance at 1 atm and a specified temperature, usually 25°C: for a gas, 1 atm; for a solution, concentration of 1 molar.


a system's capacity to do PV work

reference form

the stablest form of the element under standard thermodynamic conditions

standard enthalpy of formation

the enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25 C from its elements, with all substances in their standard states at that temperature

heat of reaction

Change of heat = Potential Energy of product minus Potential energy of reaction

Hess' Law

total enthalpy in a system is equal to the sum of the steps of the reaction

exothermic reaction

a reaction with a negative heat of reaction, releases heat

endothermic reaction

a reaction with a positive heat of reaction, absorbs heat




(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure


nature's tendency to make the most probable situation that can occur in a system


the point at which the universe has maximum entropy

Gibbs Free Energy

maximum non-PV Work available for a reaction, deltaG = deltaH - T*deltaS

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